In the U. S. since 1970, hours of paid labor have risen, while vacation time, sick leave and paid absences have decreased (Leete-Guy and Schor 1993). Shifts in the economy, and in the nature of work, and changes in family life, suggest that time pressures and constraints have increased in both the work role and in family roles (Hochschild 1997). Studies indicate a decline in day-to-day leisure and a reduction in hours of sleep and vacation time (Schor 1992). An increase in the subjective experience of feeling rushed (Robinson and Godbey 1997), and a decline in the subjective sense of available time for family and leisure (Harris 1987, Hochschild) have also been found. In spite of increasing interest in time pressures and time constraints (Libbus et al. 1995, Hochschild 1997, Jacobs and Gerson 1997, Levine 1997, Robinson and Godbey 1997), no work has focused on the impact of these experiences on well-being. In order to address this issue, the proposed project has four goals. First, to examine the demographic predictors of time pressure, urgency, and constraints. Do these subjective experiences differ by gender, by number of roles (partner, parent, community volunteer), or by occupation and income? A second goal is to develop an understanding of the utility and significance of psychosocial resources as moderators of the relationship between role demands and time pressures. Do resources in the work role and in home roles moderate the impact of role demands on time pressures? The third goal of this study is to examine the extent to which sense of time pressure, urgency and constraints predicts well-being, measured as depression and alcohol use. Does 'time shortage' mediate the relationship between role demands and well-being? A fourth goal is to examine gender differences in the impact of time pressures on well-being. A random telephone survey of the 22 counties forming Northeast Ohio, with a final sample of 1000 is proposed. Data analytic strategies include descriptive analysis, regression analysis, hierarchical regression analysis, and structural equation modeling.
|Roxburgh, Susan (2004) 'There just aren't enough hours in the day': the mental health consequences of time pressure. J Health Soc Behav 45:115-31|