Title Developing an Artificial Intelligence Chatbot to Promote HIV Testing Abstract (30 Lines) HIV testing jumpstarts the HIV prevention and treatment care continuum. HIV testing levels in men who have sex with men (MSM) and in diverse settings like Malaysia are especially low. MSM increasingly contribute to heightened HIV transmission in the presence of high levels of stigma and discrimination. For high risk MSM, new guidelines recommend frequent HIV testing, ranging from every 3 to 6 months. Yet, HIV testing in MSM often occurs less frequently due to individual (e.g., heightened concerns about risk disclosure), clinic (e.g., confidentiality breaches, and discrimination from healthcare providers) and policy (criminalization of same-sex sexual behaviors) barriers. HIV prevalence in MSM has soared to 21.6% in Malaysia, exceeding 40.9% in Kuala Lumpur. While surveillance surveys of MSM in Malaysia who meet criteria for PrEP suggest that lifetime HIV testing is 70.3%, past-year testing is 40.9% and only 9.5% were tested more than once-yearly despite extraordinary levels of self-reported risk. Once tested, however, MSM with HIV in Malaysia are likely to be treated with ART and achieve viral suppression, making HIV testing a central focus for HIV prevention and treatment. Innovative strategies that motivate and provide guidance for testing among MSM in these settings are therefore urgently needed. Intervening using Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IBM) model of behavioral change is ideally suited to overcome barriers to recommended HIV testing in MSM. Moreover, in settings like Malaysia where the HIV epidemic has transitioned from primarily concentrated in PWID to a volatile epidemic in MSM, theory-guided behavioral change strategies that inform, motivate and provide pragmatic skills to more fully engage in recommended HIV testing are poised to accelerate the HIV prevention and care continuum. Given the many individual, clinic and policy barriers to HIV testing, mobile health (mHealth) interventions that reduce ?in person? contact and offer a menu of behavioral skills is ideally suited to increase access to MSM in highly stigmatized settings and promote recommended HIV testing. Recent studies in the U.S., China, South Africa, and Peru show that mHealth interventions using smartphones and apps have the potential to increase HIV testing while maintaining MSM?s confidentiality and providing real-time information, motivation and behavioral skills to overcome barriers. Such mHealth interventions are feasible and acceptable among MSM, including in Malaysia where most MSM find sexual partners using smartphone apps with similar interfaces and functionalities to the proposed intervention. Current mHealth strategies, however, are limited by their lack of automation and need for high-intensity and sustained human inputs, which restricts their scale-up. Artificial intelligence using machine learning (AI/ML) may overcome such limitations, but have yet to be applied to mHealth-based HIV testing algorithms. We therefore aim to develop and pilot test to assess acceptability and feasibility of an AI/ML-Chatbot for HIV testing relative to treatment as usual (control). Findings from this exploratory pilot study will inform a future prospective Type 1 Hybrid implementation science trial.
The proposed research will focus on developing a chatbot that adapts using machine learning and artificial intelligence to promote HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM). Once developed and adequately tested, the new chatbot (TestBot?) will be embedded into a social networking app selected by MSM to create a mHealth intervention for MSM to promote real-time HIV testing-related information, motivation, and behavioral skills. TestBot? will provide culturally-tailored messages to promote HIV testing in MSM that does not rely on intensive human resources to develop and maintain the intervention.