We propose to translate a successful, efficacious, CASAC-approved overdose prevention, recognition and response training curriculum (S.K.O.O.P-Skills and Knowledge on Overdose Prevention) utilized in NY State into an online Computer-Assisted Instructional (CAI) format to significantly impact the dissemination of this life- saving, community-based curriculum, nation-wide. Fatal drug overdoses, from both legal and illegal drugs, have increased dramatically in the U.S. Drug overdose is now the second leading cause of accidental death in the U.S. and the leading cause of accidental death among 35-54 year olds. According to the CDC, 22,400 individuals died following an accidental overdose in 2006, the latest year for which data are available. A majority of these were opioid-related. Increasingly, opioid-related overdoses have been associated with prescription opiates. While overdoses are increasing in all drug categories, opioid-related deaths are especially tragic because they are largely preventable. A safe, cheap, easy to administer antidote exists- naloxone hydrochloride or Narcan"""""""". This antidote can be administered by family members or peers in a syringe or via a mucosal atomizer device (nasal spray) for those who are uncomfortable with syringes. Naloxone restores respiration rates which have been depressed by the overdose. It has no psychoactive properties;is not a controlled drug and has been utilized without adverse effects for decades by paramedics. Because 85 percent of overdoses occur in the company of others, a window of opportunity exists for intervention with naloxone (or rescue breathing when naloxone is not available). However, many opioid overdoses, especially those involving prescription medications, are not recognized as such by family or friends who may have contact with the overdose victim during the course of the overdose. Others try to intervene, but their efforts are often ineffective. Until recently, successful interventions required access to paramedics to revive the overdose victim. However, paramedics often arrive too late and fear of arrest means they are often not called by bystanders to assist. This all too common scenario has led to the development of innovative, community-based prevention education and intervention programs like New York's S.K.O.O.P. program which currently trains medical providers, trainers, and community members in NYC and State. Training includes overdose prevention, recognition and response (Call 911, perform rescue breathing and, when available, administer naloxone). In just NYC alone, where overdose deaths total 600 per year, S.K.O.O.P. has trained 5000 individuals and been credited with 350 reported overdose reversals with no reported adverse effects. A CAI version of this program, accessed online, will be invaluable in reaching many more individuals than is possible with face-to-face trainings, nationwide. It will also serve responders who have already undergone face-to-face training to review what they have learned. (NY requires that responders complete a refresher training every two years.) It will enable the training of more trainers, and will provide medical and other professionals with up-to-date information on saving lives.

Public Health Relevance

This project promises to contribute greatly to public health by translating a successful, efficacious, CASAC-approved overdose prevention, recognition and response training curriculum (S.K.O.O.P.- Skills and Knowledge on Overdose Prevention) into an online Computer-Assisted Instructional (CAI) format. The overdose training will significantly impact the nationwide dissemination of this life-saving, community-based curriculum.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Small Business Innovation Research Grants (SBIR) - Phase I (R43)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-HDM-K (10))
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Diana, Augusto
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Social Sciences Innovations Corporation
New York
United States
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Simmons, Janie; Rajan, Sonali; Goldsamt, Lloyd A et al. (2018) Implementation of Online Opioid Prevention, Recognition and Response Trainings for Laypeople: Year 1 Survey Results. Subst Use Misuse 53:1997-2002