Current HIV-1 vaccine candidates based on recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vectors arepromising but may prove limited by the high prevalence of pre-existing anti-Ad5 immunity in the developingworld. To overcome this problem, we have constructed a series of novel serotype and novel chimeric rAdvectors that effectively circumvent anti-Ad5 immunity. We have also demonstrated that heterologous rAdprime-boost regimens utilizing two serologically distinct rAd vectors elicit remarkably potent immuneresponses, particularly regimens involving rAd26 priming and rAd5 or rAd5HVR48 boosting. In addition, wehave generated rAd Vectors expressing optimal C clade, M consensus, and M mosaic HIV-1 antigensdesigned to minimize genetic distance and to optimize T cell epitope coverage among global HIV-1sequences.We propose to develop a practical, two-injection, heterologous rAd26 prime, rAd5HVR48boost regimen expressing antigens optimized for global coverage as a novel candidate HIV-1vaccine. The goals of Project 1 are to select the optimal antigens for our multivalent HIV-1 vaccinecandidate and to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the rAd26 prime, rAd5HVR48 boostregimen in rhesus monkeys to support the clinical program in Project 2 and the manufacturing program inProject 3.In Project 1, we hypothesize that M consensus or M mosaic HIV-1 antigens will prove superiorto naturally occurring C clade and VRC multiclade antigens for immunologic coverage of diverseglobal virus sequences. We further hypothesize that the optimal vaccine regimen expressing SIVantigens will afford significant protection against both homologous and heterologous SIV challengesin rhesus monkeys. To explore these hypotheses, we propose the following four Specific Aims:1. To compare the magnitude and breadth of immune responses elicited by optimal C clade, Mconsensus, M mosaic, and VRC multiclade antigens in rhesus monkeys;2. To determine the protective efficacy of the optimal vaccine regimen expressing various sets of SIVantigens against homologous SIV challenges in rhesus monkeys with anti-Ad5 immunity;3. To evaluate the protective efficacy of the optimal vaccine regimen against heterologous SIVchallenges in rhesus monkeys with anti-Ad5 immunity; and4. To assess the mucosal immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the optimal vaccine regimenagainst multiple, low-dose, mucosal SIV challenges in rhesus monkeys with anti-Ad5 immunity.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Research Program--Cooperative Agreements (U19)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZAI1-CCH-A (J2))
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Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
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Barouch, Dan H; Tomaka, Frank L; Wegmann, Frank et al. (2018) Evaluation of a mosaic HIV-1 vaccine in a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2a clinical trial (APPROACH) and in rhesus monkeys (NHP 13-19). Lancet 392:232-243
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