We recenfiy have demonstrated the feasibility of making measurements of nails in living subjects in situ and in vivo, making it feasible to avoid the need for clipping nails to carry out nail dosimetry, instead making the measurements with a new type of resonator that can make sensifive measurements at a high frequency (9.5 GHz or """"""""X-Band"""""""") directly on the nail in vivo. We will determine fully the feasibility and capability of measurements with sufficient accuracy and sensifivity within the dose range of interest under the conditions that would be needed to apply in the field and then determine what parameters may affect the doseresponse relationships, develop methods to cope with these factors, develop a protocol for fast and accurate dosimetry based on measurements in vivo, and then develop criteria for a clonable prototype of a fully functional EPR dosimetry instrument. We propose to make this instrument capable of being operated by non-expert users. The studies will ufilize our experience in making measurements in vivo with human subjects for tooth dosimetry and our experience in making EPR measurements in vitro in clipped nails. Because the measurements are based on a physical effect of ionizing radiafion, it is expected that they can be made at any time after the exposure within a window of several weeks. These changes are present immediately after exposure and persist for a period of a few weeks allowing measurements to be immediately taken and analyzed If an event did occur. The changes are also unaffected by factors that are likely to be present in the population after such an event and therefore will be complementary and synergistic to biologically based biodosimetry. The results of the measurements in this project will provide a crifical element for the advancement of project 2, advancing understanding of the origins and distribufions of the mechanically-induced EPR signals in nails. The instrumental core will provide critical parts of the developments of the resonators and ultimately in the construction of a sensitive X-Band EPR spectrometer for making the measurements in the field. The TBI core will provide essential access to the patient group with nails irradiated in vivo. The instrumental developments and the construction of the prototype instrument will be carried out in collaboration with Cores A,C , and E.

Public Health Relevance

The development of this technique as a field deployable instrument that can rapidly and accurately assist medical triage would significanfiy advance the ability of the medical response system to cope with a large scale radiafion exposure event, thereby reducing the negafive impact of the incident.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Research Program--Cooperative Agreements (U19)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZAI1)
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Dartmouth College
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Flood, Ann Barry; Wood, Victoria A; Schreiber, Wilson et al. (2018) Guidance to Transfer 'Bench-Ready' Medical Technology into Usual Clinical Practice: Case Study - Sensors and Spectrometer Used in EPR Oximetry. Adv Exp Med Biol 1072:233-239
Swarts, Steven G; Sidabras, Jason W; Grinberg, Oleg et al. (2018) Developments in Biodosimetry Methods for Triage With a Focus on X-band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance In Vivo Fingernail Dosimetry. Health Phys 115:140-150
Kobayashi, Kyo; Dong, Ruhong; Nicolalde, Roberto Javier et al. (2018) Development of a novel mouth model as an alternative tool to test the effectiveness of an in vivo EPR dosimetry system. Phys Med Biol 63:165002
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Sholom, Sergey; McKeever, Stephen (2017) Stability of X-band EPR signals from fingernails under vacuum storage. Radiat Phys Chem Oxf Engl 1993 141:78-87
Miyake, Minoru; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Ichiro et al. (2016) IN-VIVO RADIATION DOSIMETRY USING PORTABLE L BAND EPR: ON-SITE MEASUREMENT OF VOLUNTEERS IN FUKUSHIMA PREFECTURE, JAPAN. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 172:248-253
Camarata, Andrew S; Switchenko, Jeffrey M; Demidenko, Eugene et al. (2016) Emesis as a Screening Diagnostic for Low Dose Rate (LDR) Total Body Radiation Exposure. Health Phys 110:391-4
Sholom, S; McKeever, S W S (2016) Emergency EPR dosimetry technique using vacuum-stored dry nails. Radiat Meas 88:41-47
Kobayashi, Kyo; Dong, Ruhong; Nicolalde, Roberto Javier et al. (2016) Evolution and Optimization of Tooth Models for Testing In Vivo EPR Tooth Dosimetry. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 172:152-160
Flood, Ann Barry; Ali, Arif N; Boyle, Holly K et al. (2016) Evaluating the Special Needs of The Military for Radiation Biodosimetry for Tactical Warfare Against Deployed Troops: Comparing Military to Civilian Needs for Biodosimetry Methods. Health Phys 111:169-82

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