The proposed work will explore the genetic basis for real-world variability in the behavior of human pathogens during infections of individual humans and whole populations. The focus will be on two gramnegative pathogens, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Shigella dysenteriae, both of which cause infectious diseases associated with substantial mortality in humans. B. pseudomallei is an opportunistic pathogen that causes melioidosis, a disease largely found in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia;it has been classified as a select agent because of its perceived potential as a biowarfare agent. S. dysenteriae causes dysentery epidemics, predominantly in developing countries, which cause substantial mortality, particular in children. The basic hypothesis behind the proposed work is that genetic changes occurring during individual B. pseudomallei infections or during S. dysenteriae epidemics will reveal the selective pressures operating on these species as a result of host defenses, treatment, and?in the case of S. dysenteriae?the dynamic changes in the characteristics of the host population within which the epidemic is spreading. A better understanding of the molecular basis for these genetic effects may suggest new approaches to the clinical and public-health management of the diseases. The project has a major technical component since, although new-generation-sequencing technology is opening up the opportunity for studies of the type proposed, key aspects of the technology remain underdeveloped. We place particular emphasis on improvements in the rapidity with which new base-pair-accurate, finished genome sequences can be produced for the index strains of particular infections or epidemics. These reference sequences play a key in role in the experimental and computational methods used to detect the genetic changes that occur during infections and epidemics.

Public Health Relevance

The proposed work is relevant to the clinical and public-health management of bacterial disease in two ways: (1) Improved knowledge of genetic responses of bacteria to treatment, host defenses, and public-health interventions may suggest improved disease management (e.g., pharmacological means of avoiding or circumventing antibiotic resistance);(2) Rapid, comprehensive tracking of pathogen genotypes during disease outbreaks would support epidemiological and/or forensic investigation of epidemics and provide public reassurance that health officials have a clear picture of what is happening.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Specialized Center--Cooperative Agreements (U54)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZAI1-DDS-M)
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
University of Washington
United States
Zip Code
Hagar, Jon A; Edin, Matthew L; Lih, Fred B et al. (2017) Lipopolysaccharide Potentiates Insulin-Driven Hypoglycemic Shock. J Immunol 199:3634-3643
Hajjar, Adeline M; Ernst, Robert K; Yi, Jaehun et al. (2017) Expression level of human TLR4 rather than sequence is the key determinant of LPS responsiveness. PLoS One 12:e0186308
Jorgensen, Ine; Lopez, Joseph P; Laufer, Stefan A et al. (2016) IL-1?, IL-18, and eicosanoids promote neutrophil recruitment to pore-induced intracellular traps following pyroptosis. Eur J Immunol 46:2761-2766
Miller, Samuel I; Chaudhary, Anu (2016) A Cellular GWAS Approach to Define Human Variation in Cellular Pathways Important to Inflammation. Pathogens 5:
Fan, Vincent S; Gharib, Sina A; Martin, Thomas R et al. (2016) COPD disease severity and innate immune response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 11:467-77
Jorgensen, Ine; Zhang, Yue; Krantz, Bryan A et al. (2016) Pyroptosis triggers pore-induced intracellular traps (PITs) that capture bacteria and lead to their clearance by efferocytosis. J Exp Med 213:2113-28
Hayden, Hillary S; Matamouros, Susana; Hager, Kyle R et al. (2016) Genomic Analysis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Characterizes Strain Diversity for Recent U.S. Salmonellosis Cases and Identifies Mutations Linked to Loss of Fitness under Nitrosative and Oxidative Stress. MBio 7:e00154
Chaudhary, Anu; Leite, Mara; Kulasekara, Bridget R et al. (2016) Human Diversity in a Cell Surface Receptor that Inhibits Autophagy. Curr Biol 26:1791-801
Majerczyk, Charlotte; Schneider, Emily; Greenberg, E Peter (2016) Quorum sensing control of Type VI secretion factors restricts the proliferation of quorum-sensing mutants. Elife 5:
Yen, Gloria S; Edgar, J Scott; Yoon, Sung Hwan et al. (2016) Polydimethylsiloxane microchannel coupled to surface acoustic wave nebulization mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 30:1096-100

Showing the most recent 10 out of 247 publications