PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of low ignition propensity (LIP) cigarette laws in New York State and Canada on fire incidence, smoking behaviors, smoke toxin exposure and cigarette design.A. BACKGROUNDThe Low Ignition Propensity (LIP) cigarette law went into effect in New York on June 28, 2004, and the Canadian law became effective as of October 1, 2005. Both require that all cigarettes be certified using the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) test for ignition propensity. The purpose of these laws is to reduce the incidence of cigarette-caused fires, which caused 10,130 deaths and 29,296 injuries in the US and 1,139 deaths and 3,376 injuries in Canada between 1990 and 1999. LIP laws could have important implications for toxin exposure since change in the cigarette design would be required to reach the new ignition propensity certification. Research on the efficacy and related impacts of this harm reduction policy can inform legislators considering similar laws. B. STATEMENT OF WORK and/or DESCRIPTION OF SERVICES This study will examine the smoking topography and toxin exposures of 60 smokers each in NY, MA, and ON to determine if LIP cigarettes alter smoking behavior or exposure to smoke toxins (CO, NNAL, PAHs). Smokers of specific brands will smoke their usual brand over a period of two weeks. Smokers will come to the laboratory on two occasions to provide saliva and urine samples. Smokers will be provided a CReSSmicro device, and smoke at least 5 cigarettes per day using the device over the course of two days. Salivary samples will be assayed for cotinine. Urine samples will be assayed for carcinogen metabolites (1-hydroxypyrene [1-HOP], 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, and NNAL). Smokers will keep a diary reporting cigarettes smoked per day and will be asked to retain cigarette butts from the day preceding each laboratory visit. CDC/NCEH/DLS will provide expertise in sample collection procedures and analysis of biomarkers in biological specimens. CDC will measure hydroxylated PAH metabolites (N=20 including metabolites of Naphthalene, Fluorene, Phenanthrene, Pyrene, Benzo(c)phenanthrene, Benzo(a)anthracene and Chrysene) up to 360 urine samples. C. PERIOD OF PERFORMANCEThe period of performance for this IAA is from the date of final signature through September 20, 2008. The term of performance for the project funded by this IAA shall be from February 20, 2008 through December 31, 2009. Results will be reported no later than 180 days upon receipt of samples. Samples are expected to be shipped to NCEH in March 2008. NIH shall collect and process urine specimens for the proposed laboratory assessments and will batch-ship frozen samples at an agreed-upon date to DLS via Federal Express or similar express carrier in accordance with all applicable biohazard, shipping, and CDC rules in March 2008. NCEH, upon receipt of the samples indicated above, shall do all necessary sample preparation and analysis. NCEH will be responsible for storing the urine specimens in -70oC freezers until samples are returned to NIH/NCI or discarded.D. REPORTING REQUIREMENTS NCEH/DLS will provide NIH/NCI with electronic data files of the results and the methods used for analysis of the specimens. Data will be reported no later than 180 following receipt on samples.