Prevention strategies have been developed to take advantage of the metabolic and behavioral risk factors for type 2 diabetes that have been identified in research with the Pima Indians and elsewhere. Obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, physical inactivity, and high fat diet have been implicated as risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Since these factors are potentially reversible with behavioral and pharmacologic therapy, strategies for prevention have been developed and will be tested. This project is a multicenter randomized clinical trial of prevention of type 2 diabetes in overweight persons with impaired glucose tolerance known as the Diabetes Prevention Program. The first phase of the clinical trial was completed, resulting in a reduction of the incidence rate of diabetes by 31% by metformin and 58% by a lifestyle modification program. Economic analyses indicated the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Long-term follow-up of participants continues.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Intramural Research (Z01)
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U.S. National Inst Diabetes/Digst/Kidney
United States
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Florez, Jose C; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Bayley, Nick et al. (2006) TCF7L2 polymorphisms and progression to diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program. N Engl J Med 355:241-50
Knowler, William C (2006) Optimal diet for glycemia and lipids. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Clin Perform Programme 11:97-102; discussion 102-5
Knowler, William C; Hamman, Richard F; Edelstein, Sharon L et al. (2005) Prevention of type 2 diabetes with troglitazone in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Diabetes 54:1150-6
Rubin, Richard R; Knowler, William C; Ma, Yong et al. (2005) Depression symptoms and antidepressant medicine use in Diabetes Prevention Program participants. Diabetes Care 28:830-7
Kitabchi, Abbas E; Temprosa, Marinella; Knowler, William C et al. (2005) Role of insulin secretion and sensitivity in the evolution of type 2 diabetes in the diabetes prevention program: effects of lifestyle intervention and metformin. Diabetes 54:2404-14
Molitch, Mark E; Fujimoto, Wilfred; Hamman, Richard F et al. (2003) The diabetes prevention program and its global implications. J Am Soc Nephrol 14:S103-7
Knowler, William C; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Fowler, Sarah E et al. (2002) Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 346:393-403