There are two major types of infectious vaccinia virus particles: mature virions (MVs) and enveloped virions (EVs). The MVs, which consist of a DNA-protein core surrounded by a lipoprotein membrane, are assembled in cytoplasmic viral factories and contain about 80 polypeptides. A subpopulation of MVs is wrapped by modified trans-Golgi or endosomal cisterna containing additional viral membrane proteins, transported along microtubules to the cell periphery, and exits the cell through the plasma membrane. The EVs are essentially MVs with an additional membrane that is disrupted prior to fusion of the MV with the cell during entry. One of the most challenging questions is how the initial viral membrane of the immature virion is formed. Using biochemical, genetic and microscopic approaches, we have obtained evidence that the endoplasmic reticulum is the source of the viral membrane and have identified several viral proteins involved in this process.

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Moss, Bernard (2018) Origin of the poxviral membrane: A 50-year-old riddle. PLoS Pathog 14:e1007002
Moss, Bernard (2017) Investigating Viruses during the Transformation of Molecular Biology. J Biol Chem 292:3958-3969
Hyun, Seong-In; Weisberg, Andrea; Moss, Bernard (2017) Deletion of the Vaccinia Virus I2 Protein Interrupts Virion Morphogenesis, Leading to Retention of the Scaffold Protein and Mislocalization of Membrane-Associated Entry Proteins. J Virol 91:
Weisberg, Andrea S; Maruri-Avidal, Liliana; Bisht, Himani et al. (2017) Enigmatic origin of the poxvirus membrane from the endoplasmic reticulum shown by 3D imaging of vaccinia virus assembly mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114:E11001-E11009
Erlandson, Karl J; Bisht, Himani; Weisberg, Andrea S et al. (2016) Poxviruses Encode a Reticulon-Like Protein that Promotes Membrane Curvature. Cell Rep 14:2084-2091
Moss, Bernard (2016) Membrane fusion during poxvirus entry. Semin Cell Dev Biol 60:89-96
Sivan, Gilad; Weisberg, Andrea S; Americo, Jeffrey L et al. (2016) Retrograde Transport from Early Endosomes to the trans-Golgi Network Enables Membrane Wrapping and Egress of Vaccinia Virus Virions. J Virol 90:8891-905
Hyun, Seong-In; Maruri-Avidal, Liliana; Moss, Bernard (2015) Topology of Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Cellular and Viral Proteins Determined with Split-GFP. Traffic 16:787-95
Gjessing, Mona C; Yutin, Natalya; Tengs, Torstein et al. (2015) Salmon Gill Poxvirus, the Deepest Representative of the Chordopoxvirinae. J Virol 89:9348-67
Moss, Bernard (2015) Poxvirus membrane biogenesis. Virology 479-480:619-26

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