Molecular Imaging of Prostate Cancer Background: Prostate cancer is the 2nd leading cause of cancer death in males. As a result of screening with serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) there has been a dramatic increase in the number of men diagnosed with prostate cancer, about 220,000 new diagnoses annually. The diagnosis is being made at a younger age yet the morbidity of the standard treatment such as surgery and radiation---remain unchanged. Thus, men with the diagnosis of prostate cancer are likely being overtreated for their disease and will live with the consequences of this treatment for many years, greatly affecting the Quality of Life Years (QALY). The ultimate answer to this dilemma is serum biomarkers that identify lethal cancers but not incidental cancers but this is unlikely to occur soon. In the meantime, methods of localizing prostate cancer and treating them with minimally invasive therapy would dramatically lessen the morbidity associated with widespread screening and the overdiagnosis of prostate cancer. A variety of imaging methods have been developed and we are exploring their role in localizing early prostate cancer(1). The MIP has partnered with the Urologic Oncology Branch to develop new imaging methods to be coupled with minimally invasive treatment methods which include RF ablation, cryotherapy and alcohol ablation. Pre-Clinical Research The MIP is engaged in a number of pre clinical studies in prostate cancer. We have been investigating a variety of targeted imaging agents. Initially, we have evaluated several antibodies against PSMA (3TC, J591) in animal models of prostate cancer. We have coupled these antibodies with various optical imaging agents as well as radionuclides. Of course, the long clearance times of antibodies make antibody imaging less attractive. We have also used antibody vectors to direct phototherapy (so called photoimmunotherapy) to specific tumor sites. A novel marker of prostate cancer, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) has been identified as a stromal target by the Buck lab. Unlike conventional prostate cancer targets, this target is located in the stroma associated with cancers. As a result it may be more accessible than prostate cancer cell markers that are within acini and located behind the basement membrane (although the basement membrane is often disrupted in prostate cancer). Stroma is part of the microenvironment that includes vessels and lymphatics and therefore may be more accessible. A human antibody against EpCAM has been developed and is in clinical trials. The radiolabeled antibody has been tested in human tissue. Analogous markers have been found in the canine model of prostate cancer and trials in dogs are being designed. Clinical Trials The MIP has been studying prostate cancer imaging in humans since its inception. We perform endorectal coil MRI at 3T which includes DCE-MRI, MR Spectroscopy and Diffusion Weighted Imaging. We have developed analytic tools for all three techniques in conjunction with a CRADA with the Philips Medical Systems. We have demonstrated that DCE-MRI improves the specificity of 3T MRI for prostate cancer. However, there remain significant limitations in the sensitivity and specificity of 3T MRI. After patients undergo prostatectomy and their specimens are available for review it is clear that less than 40% would be amenable for focal therapy based on being single, well circumscribed lesions that are visible on MRI. We have designed a customized prostate mold which is in use in all patients at NCI. It enables the imaging to be directly correlated with the pathologic specimen We have designed MR guided biopsy devices in conjunction with Johns Hopkins University School of Bioengineering but concluded that this device was too complex and time consuming for clinical use(2-5). This device was used to define treatment fields for High Dose Rate Brachytherapy, however, it proved somewhat cumbersome. Therefore, working with Philips Medical Systems we have designed an US-MR fusion system that takes the data from the 3T MRI and fuses it to the real time ultrasound image(6). Biopsy and interventional procedures can then be performed under MR guidance using the ultrasound. This device has been used successfully in 500 patients. A dog study showed the accuracy was about 2mm. We are currently using the same platform to direct focal laser ablation (FLA) of suitable prostate lesions (i.e. ones that are well demarcated, low Gleason score and could otherwise be watched.) We believe that MRI is fundamentally limited in identifying intraprostatic disease. We are searching for PET agents that might be more specific for prostate cancer. For instance, we completed a PET study using 11C-Acetate to study the value of this agent in identifying intraprostatic lesions(1). Patients will also undergo 3T MRI and the PET image will be fused to the MRI. We are midway through a trial using the tracer 18F-ACBC, an agent associated with amino acid transport which has shown success in localizing recurrent prostate cancer. Ultimately we wish to combine PET-MR studies and conduct minimally invasive therapies after US fusion. We will make use of the newly installed PET MR unit at NIH. We hope to peform PET studies with a PSMA targeted PET agent in collaboration with Johns Hopkins. 1. Hricak, H., Choyke, P. L., Eberhardt, S. C., Leibel, S. A., and Scardino, P. T. Imaging prostate cancer: a multidisciplinary perspective. Radiology, 243: 28-53, 2007. 2. Susil, R. C., Menard, C., Krieger, A., Coleman, J. A., Camphausen, K., Choyke, P., Fichtinger, G., Whitcomb, L. L., Coleman, C. N., and Atalar, E. Transrectal prostate biopsy and fiducial marker placement in a standard 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. J Urol, 175: 113-120, 2006. 3. Menard, C., Susil, R. C., Choyke, P., Coleman, J., Grubb, R., Gharib, A., Krieger, A., Guion, P., Thomasson, D., Ullman, K., Gupta, S., Espina, V., Liotta, L., Petricoin, E., Fitchtinger, G., Whitcomb, L. L., Atalar, E., Coleman, C. N., and Camphausen, K. An interventional magnetic resonance imaging technique for the molecular characterization of intraprostatic dynamic contrast enhancement. Mol Imaging, 4: 63-66, 2005. 4. Susil, R. C., Camphausen, K., Choyke, P., McVeigh, E. R., Gustafson, G. S., Ning, H., Miller, R. W., Atalar, E., Coleman, C. N., and Menard, C. System for prostate brachytherapy and biopsy in a standard 1.5 T MRI scanner. Magn Reson Med, 52: 683-687, 2004. 5. Menard, C., Susil, R. C., Choyke, P., Gustafson, G. S., Kammerer, W., Ning, H., Miller, R. W., Ullman, K. L., Sears Crouse, N., Smith, S., Lessard, E., Pouliot, J., Wright, V., McVeigh, E., Coleman, C. N., and Camphausen, K. MRI-guided HDR prostate brachytherapy in standard 1.5T scanner. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 59: 1414-1423, 2004. 6. Lattouf, J. B., Grubb, R. L., 3rd, Lee, S. J., Bjurlin, M. A., Albert, P., Singh, A. K., Ocak, I., Choyke, P., and Coleman, J. A. Magnetic resonance imaging-directed transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsies in patients at risk of prostate cancer. BJU Int, 99: 1041-1046, 2007.

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Smith, Clayton P; Czarniecki, Marcin; Mehralivand, Sherif et al. (2018) Radiomics and radiogenomics of prostate cancer. Abdom Radiol (NY) :
Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Choyke, Peter L (2018) Advances in prostate-specific membrane antigen PET of prostate cancer. Curr Opin Oncol 30:189-196
Lindenberg, Liza; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter (2018) Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Locally Advanced, Recurrent, and Metastatic Prostate Cancer-Reply. JAMA Oncol 4:749-750
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Bjurlin, Marc A; Turkbey, Baris; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B et al. (2018) Imaging the High-risk Prostate Cancer Patient: Current and Future Approaches to Staging. Urology 116:3-12
Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L (2018) Future Perspectives and Challenges of Prostate MR Imaging. Radiol Clin North Am 56:327-337
van Houdt, Petra J; Agarwal, Harsh K; van Buuren, Laurens D et al. (2018) Performance of a fast and high-resolution multi-echo spin-echo sequence for prostate T2 mapping across multiple systems. Magn Reson Med 79:1586-1594
Buyyounouski, Mark K; Choyke, Peter L; McKenney, Jesse K et al. (2017) Prostate cancer - major changes in the American Joint Committee on Cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual. CA Cancer J Clin 67:245-253
Greer, Matthew D; Shih, Joanna H; Lay, Nathan et al. (2017) Validation of the Dominant Sequence Paradigm and Role of Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Imaging in PI-RADS Version 2. Radiology 285:859-869

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