Urban Health Study (CAS 10067) The Urban Health Study is a human population-based, community-based, etiologic study of >2,400 San Francisco Bay area injection drug users who are exposed to a variety of blood borne viruses. The viruses of most interest cause hepatocellular carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. This research has a molecular component: the specimens are being used to investigate gene markers that may be associated with disease. We make genetic comparisons between drug users who failed to become infected with HCV and otherwise similar HCV-infected subjects. We will also compare subjects who are chronically infected with HBV or HCV to those with resolved infection. HALT-C Study (CAS 10070) This study makes use of data and specimens that were collected from patients with chronic hepatitis C during the HALT-C trial, which evaluated the efficacy of long-term treatment with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin to prevent hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. We compare host genetic polymorphisms in HALT-C non-responders to HALT-C participants who responded to anti-viral treatment. This is a human population-based study in a clinical setting. This research has a molecular component in that DNA specimens are used to investigate gene markers that may be associated with treatment response. This study aims to detect genetic markers that make patients more likely to respond to anti-viral treatment and, therefore, less likely to develop hepatocellular carcinoma. HCC in the United States (CAS 10303) This study is human population-based and etiologic. The study setting is clinical and it includes patients with chronic HCV infection who are undergoing liver transplantation. This research has a molecular component in that specimens are being used to investigate genetic markers (liver gene expression) that may be associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) (CAS 10426) This research project is human population-based and etiologic The study setting is clinical and it is focused on infection with HIV, which causes non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma. This research has a molecular component- specimens are being used to investigate gene markers that may be associated with HIV infection.

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National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics
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Park, Heiyoung; O'Brien, Thomas R; Rehermann, Barbara (2018) The role of genetics in hepatic fibrosis among hepatitis C virus patients. Hepatology 67:2043-2045
Mahale, Parag; Aka, Peter V; Chen, Xiaohua et al. (2018) Hepatitis D Viremia Among Injection Drug Users in San Francisco. J Infect Dis 217:1902-1906
O'Brien, Thomas R; Kottilil, Shyam; Pfeiffer, Ruth M (2017) IFNL4 Genotype Is Associated With Virologic Relapse After 8-Week Treatment With Sofosbuvir, Velpatasvir, and Voxilaprevir. Gastroenterology 153:1694-1695
Kuniholm, Mark H; Strickler, Howard D; Anastos, Kathryn et al. (2017) Relationship of Genotype for HLA B*57 and IFNL4 with Disease Progression in Female HIV Controllers. Clin Infect Dis :
O'Brien, Thomas R; Kottilil, Shyam; Feld, Jordan J et al. (2017) Race or genetic makeup for hepatitis C virus treatment decisions? Hepatology 65:2124-2125
Mahale, Parag; Glenn, Jeffrey S; O'Brien, Thomas R (2017) Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation Associated With Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus. Ann Intern Med 167:759-760
O'Brien, Thomas R; Feld, Jordan J; Kottilil, Shyam et al. (2016) No scientific basis to restrict 8 weeks of treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir to patients with hepatitis C virus RNA <6,000,000 IU/mL. Hepatology 63:28-30
O'Brien, Thomas R; Pfeiffer, Ruth M (2015) Reply: Subgroup Differences in Response to 8 Weeks of Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir for Chronic Hepatitis C. Open Forum Infect Dis 2:ofv057
Lang Kuhs, Krystle A; Kuniholm, Mark H; Pfeiffer, Ruth M et al. (2015) Interferon Lambda 4 Genotype Is Not Associated with Recurrence of Oral or Genital Herpes. PLoS One 10:e0138827
O'Brien, Thomas R; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Paquin, Ashley et al. (2015) Comparison of functional variants in IFNL4 and IFNL3 for association with HCV clearance. J Hepatol 63:1103-10

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