The first of these studies - Genetic Modifiers of Tamoxifen-Related Breast Cancer Risk: NSABP P1G3 [CAS 7220]- was a case/case analysis of 39 SNPs in 19 different genes among 249 women with invasive breast cancer (84 exposed to tamoxifen;165 placebo). This was a null study by single SNP association and haplotype analysis. However, the constellation of alleles characterizing cases emerging in the presence of tamoxifen (resistant genotypes) was distinct from that in the unexposed (placebo) cases. This pathway analysis approach generated an allelic signature that may have potential as a predictive biomarker of tamoxifen resistance. These results have just been published. This project is now complete. Utilizing the resources of the Prostate, Lung, Colon and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer screening trial, we have been investigating the relationship between the Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) Signaling Pathway and Risk of Advanced Colorectal Adenoma [CAS 7300], prompted by data suggesting that IGFs may represent potentially modifiable cancer risk factors. We have analyzed 800 participants found to have an advanced colorectal adenoma at the time of baseline screen, and 800 matched non-adenoma subjects. Genotyping has been completed on 37 SNPs in 7 IGF-related genes (IGF1, IGF-BP3, ALS, IGF-1R, IGF-BP5, IGF2 and GH), and circulating levels of IGF-1, IGF-2 and IGFBP-3 have been measured. The latter documented a 1.7-fold increase in adenoma risk (95% C.I. 1.2-2.5) in highest vs. lowest quartiles of IGF-1, controlled for IGF-2, IGF-BP3 and numerous other covariates. These data are now in press. The evaluation of genetic variants as primary risk factors for advance adenoma was null, although we confirmed the previously-observed strong relationship between IGF-BP3-01 (rs2854744), and a new association between IGF-BP3-07 (rs6413441) and circulating levels of IGF-BP3 among controls. These two SNPs decrease IGF-BP-3 levels by 222 and 148 units per minor allele (mean IGF-BP3 level 4,000 units). This study has been expanded by adding additional genotyping data from the DCEG Rare Cancers iSELECT study which, serendipitously, analyzed the same set of DNA samples. These data provide a more comprehensive interrogation of IGF signaling pathway genes: 1,338 advanced colorectal adenoma cases and 1,503 matched controls were studied, and data generated for 570 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 28 IGF pathway genes. Two SNP associations remained statistically significant after a gene-based correction for multiple testing. The G allele of rs12305513, which is located in an intron of the oncogene, KRAS, was associated an increased risk of adenoma (ORper allele=1.36, 95% CI =1.13-1.63, P=0.001). The G allele of rs180531, located in the serine/threonine kinase gene, RPS6KB1, was associated with a reduced risk of adenoma (ORper allele=0.83, 95% CI=0.73-0.95, P=0.006). A manuscript is in preparation. We have developed a portfolio of projects evaluating Genetic Risk Factors for Osteogenic Sarcoma [CAS 10375]. Osteogenic sarcoma (OS), the most common malignant primary bone tumor, occurs most commonly during the adolescent growth spurt. As part of a prospective case-control study of OS initiated in 1995 with the NCI and Harvard Dental School, we studied genetic variation in many genes/pathways implicated in the cellular regulation of growth. We identified a small haplotype block that was associated with risk of OS in the IGF2R gene. This genomic region (near exon 16) consists of CpG islands, and functional analysis of the SNPs in this block suggested that a specific SNP associated with OS risk resulted in differential methylation at that SNP site. Because OS is one of the syndrome-defining malignancies in patients with germ-line TP53 mutations (i.e., the Li-Fraumeni Syndrome), we investigated the role of germ-line genetic variants in TP53 as OS risk factors. These data did not indicate a strong link between variation in TP53 and OS risk, although they did provide preliminary evidence of an increased risk of OS associated with TP53 variants IVS2+38 and Pro72Arg. We recently updated the descriptive epidemiology of OS in two separate publications: one based on US data from NCI's SEER program, and the other based on multiple international cancer epidemiology databases. We published a meta-analysis of height and birth weight as OS risk factors. The data confirmed that height is a significant risk factor for OS. The evidence related to birth weight was not definitive. Finally, we have launched an international collaborative project which will support a genome-wide association study (GWAS) aimed at identifying genetic risk factors for OS. Collaborators include the Children's Oncology Group, and multiple investigators in Europe and Australia. The GWAS will consist of approximately 2000 OS cases;controls will be derived from existing NCI studies. The initial round of genotyping has been completed, and data analysis is underway.

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National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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Koster, Roelof; Panagiotou, Orestis A; Wheeler, William A et al. (2018) Genome-wide association study identifies the GLDC/IL33 locus associated with survival of osteosarcoma patients. Int J Cancer 142:1594-1601
Basavaraju, Umesh; Shebl, Fatma M; Palmer, Andrew J et al. (2015) Cytokine gene polymorphisms, cytokine levels and the risk of colorectal neoplasia in a screened population of Northeast Scotland. Eur J Cancer Prev 24:296-304
Hirt, Carsten; Camargo, M Constanza; Yu, Kelly J et al. (2015) Risk of follicular lymphoma associated with BCL2 translocations in peripheral blood. Leuk Lymphoma 56:2625-9
Savage, Sharon A (2014) Genomic clues to ethnic differences in ALL. Blood 123:2440-2
Khanna, Chand; Fan, Timothy M; Gorlick, Richard et al. (2014) Toward a drug development path that targets metastatic progression in osteosarcoma. Clin Cancer Res 20:4200-9
Hirt, Carsten; Weitmann, Kerstin; Schüler, Frank et al. (2013) Circulating t(14;18)-positive cells in healthy individuals: association with age and sex but not with smoking. Leuk Lymphoma 54:2678-84
Gao, Ying; Katki, Hormuzd; Graubard, Barry et al. (2012) Serum IGF1, IGF2 and IGFBP3 and risk of advanced colorectal adenoma. Int J Cancer 131:E105-13
Thomas, David M; Savage, Sharon A; Bond, Gareth L (2012) Hereditary and environmental epidemiology of sarcomas. Clin Sarcoma Res 2:13
Savage, Sharon A; Mirabello, Lisa (2011) Using epidemiology and genomics to understand osteosarcoma etiology. Sarcoma 2011:548151
Mirabello, Lisa; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Murphy, Gwen et al. (2011) Height at diagnosis and birth-weight as risk factors for osteosarcoma. Cancer Causes Control 22:899-908

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