The primary project is a family study of genetic susceptibility to asthma in a highly ozone exposed population, Mexico City. This study uses the case-parent triad design. In the past year our work in this study has focused on analyzing genome wide association genotyping data on our samples. The samples were genotyping using the Illumina 550,000 single nucleotide polymorphism platform. We have completed the primary genome wide association study (GWAS) manuscript. We identified a novel locus on chromosome 9 associated with asthma in our population as well as an independent study of childhood onset asthma in a Mexican population. The region contains the TLE4 which is plausibly involved in asthma. Analysis of our results in relation to publically available gene expression data from various tissues suggests that there are signals for other genes at lower levels of significance and that these genes are disproportionate expressed in tissues of relevance to asthma. In addition, ancestry analysis suggests that this association might not extend to other ethnic groups. This work was recently published in PLos Genetics. To make optimal use of the genome wide association data, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of candidate genes from the prior literature on asthma both human association studies and mouse knockout models. A limitation of the existing candidate gene literature is the lack of systematic replication and evidence of publication bias. Further, large genes implicated in positional cloning studies that requiring genotyping of many SNPs to provide good coverage, tend to be understudied. In this analysis of over 230 genes, our most statistically significant findings emerged for TGFB1, IL1RL1, IL18R1, and DPP10. Of note DPP10 is an example of a very large gene that had been minimally studied since its identification from positional cloning. This manuscript is under review. We are currently analyzing genome wide interactions with exposures of interest in this study including parental smoking, ozone, and traffic. However, we realize that our GWAS is modest in size and both analysis of main effects, and especially interactions, require much larger samples sizes. To this end, we are participating in an NHLBI-led consortium called EVE which brings together GWAS of asthma funded by NIH. Increasing evidence suggest the importance of pregnancy and early life factors in the etiology of asthma and allergy in childhood. Various investigators in the Epidemiology Branch have established a collaboration with the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (called MoBa), a population based cohort of approximately 100,000 pregnant women in Norway who are being followed until their children reach adulthood. I have established a collaboration with the asthma group in Norway around gene-environment interaction and epigenetics. NIEHS/DIR partially supports the MoBa study with the goal of enabling such add-on studies. I have been working on analyses of early childhood outcomes with the MoBa investigators. In the current year we have published papers on both maternal obesity and folate supplementation in relation to early childhood respiratory illness. Our finding that children of mothers taking folate supplements had slightly higher risk of wheeze and lower respiratory illness in early childhood is of potential public health importance. This was the first human study to address a recent finding in mouse models that supplementation with folate and other methyl donors in pregnancy lead to an allergic asthma phenotype in offspring due to epigenetic mechanisms. Norway is an ideal place to examine this association because food is not fortified with folate. We are now following up this observation by analyzing asthma phenotypes at a later time point (3 years of age) in relation to actual folate measurements in maternal blood taken during pregnancy. We are also beginning work to address the question of whether folate levels in maternal blood are related to epigenetic changes in the offspring cord blood. We realize that many children have wheezing illness in the first few years of life and that much of this resolves by school age and does not become asthma. Therefore it is important to follow-up our findings by following the children to age seven year when asthma is more reliably diagnosed and inhalant allergies have become common. Therefore we are pilot testing a questionnaire to be administered to mothers whose children turn seven years. This will enable high quality, well powered studies of genetics and epigenetics of childhood asthma and allergies, including consideration of interactions with environmental factors, including diet, parental smoking, wood burning and ambient air pollution. I have also been working with Dr. Darryl Zeldin and others on analyses of data collected with NIEHS intramural funding within the National Health Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006. We have published on the association between obesity and allergies in children in the past year.

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Størdal, Ketil; McArdle, Harry J; Hayes, Helen et al. (2018) Prenatal iron exposure and childhood type 1 diabetes. Sci Rep 8:9067
Demenais, Florence; Margaritte-Jeannin, Patricia; Barnes, Kathleen C et al. (2018) Multiancestry association study identifies new asthma risk loci that colocalize with immune-cell enhancer marks. Nat Genet 50:42-53
Nichols, Cody E; Shepherd, Danielle L; Hathaway, Quincy A et al. (2018) Reactive oxygen species damage drives cardiac and mitochondrial dysfunction following acute nano-titanium dioxide inhalation exposure. Nanotoxicology 12:32-48
Sharp, Gemma C; Arathimos, Ryan; Reese, Sarah E et al. (2018) Maternal alcohol consumption and offspring DNA methylation: findings from six general population-based birth cohorts. Epigenomics 10:27-42
Magnus, Maria C; Miliku, Kozeta; Bauer, Anna et al. (2018) Vitamin D and risk of pregnancy related hypertensive disorders: mendelian randomisation study. BMJ 361:k2167
Magnus, Maria C; Wright, Rosalind J; Røysamb, Espen et al. (2018) Association of Maternal Psychosocial Stress With Increased Risk of Asthma Development in Offspring. Am J Epidemiol 187:1199-1209
Felix, Janine F; Joubert, Bonnie R; Baccarelli, Andrea A et al. (2018) Cohort Profile: Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) Consortium. Int J Epidemiol 47:22-23u
Parr, Christine L; Magnus, Maria C; Karlstad, Øystein et al. (2018) Vitamin A and D intake in pregnancy, infant supplementation, and asthma development: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 107:789-798
Valeri, Linda; Reese, Sarah L; Zhao, Shanshan et al. (2017) Misclassified exposure in epigenetic mediation analyses. Does DNA methylation mediate effects of smoking on birthweight? Epigenomics 9:253-265
Reese, Sarah E; Zhao, Shanshan; Wu, Michael C et al. (2017) DNA Methylation Score as a Biomarker in Newborns for Sustained Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect 125:760-766

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