The primary goal of this research is to identify significant modifiable factors (i.e., diet, lifestyle factors, etc.) and novel risk factors that may predict the risk for GDM and contribute to the prevention of GDM. Within the common theme of insulin resistance and secretion, several important diet and lifestyle associations with GDM have been successfully identified in this effort based on data from the Nurses Health Study II. Several studies on other modifiable risk factors and other novel risk factors are underway based on the Nurses'Health Study and other collaborative studies such as Consortium of Safe Labor. In the past year, we have identified several new risk factors including dietary protein intakes, history of infertility, history of depression, and environmental chemicals such as PFOA etc. These papers were presented in the Society of Maternal and Fetal Medicine meeting, Annual Scientific Meeting of American Diabetes Association, Society for Epidemiologic Research, and Society for Pediatric and Perinatal Research. We published several important papers on this topic as well. Seveeral papers are underreview.

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U.S. National Inst/Child Hlth/Human Dev
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Bao, Wei; Song, Yiqing; Bertrand, Kimberly A et al. (2018) Prepregnancy habitual intake of vitamin D from diet and supplements in relation to risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: A prospective cohort study. J Diabetes 10:373-379
Bao, Wei; Dar, Sharon; Zhu, Yeyi et al. (2018) Plasma concentrations of lipids during pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: A longitudinal study. J Diabetes 10:487-495
Rawal, Shristi; Tsai, Michael Y; Hinkle, Stefanie N et al. (2018) A Longitudinal Study of Thyroid Markers Across Pregnancy and the Risk of Gestational Diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 103:2447-2456
Zhu, Yeyi; Tsai, Michael Y; Sun, Qi et al. (2018) A prospective and longitudinal study of plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acid profile in relation to cardiometabolic biomarkers and the risk of gestational diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 107:1017-1026
Hinkle, Stefanie N; Tsai, Michael Y; Rawal, Shristi et al. (2018) HbA1c Measured in the First Trimester of Pregnancy and the Association with Gestational Diabetes. Sci Rep 8:12249
Zhang, Cuilin; Rawal, Shristi (2017) Dietary iron intake, iron status, and gestational diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 106:1672S-1680S
Smarr, Melissa M; Grantz, Katherine L; Zhang, Cuilin et al. (2016) Persistent organic pollutants and pregnancy complications. Sci Total Environ 551-552:285-91
Mason, Susan M; Tobias, Deirdre K; Clark, Cari J et al. (2016) Abuse in Childhood or Adolescence and Gestational Diabetes: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Am J Prev Med 50:436-444
Zhang, Cuilin; Bao, Wei; Tobias, Deirdre K et al. (2016) Authors' reply to Gachi, Mullie and colleagues, and Weatherburn. BMJ 352:i1191
Bao, Wei; Michels, Karin B; Tobias, Deirdre K et al. (2016) Parental smoking during pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes in the daughter. Int J Epidemiol 45:160-9

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