This award supports a postdoctoral researcher to study the coupling between tropospheric disturbances, such as hurricanes and tropical depressions, and the lower thermosphere/ionosphere region. The objective of the research is three-fold: 1) Observe possible effects of hurricanes and tropical depressions on the F-region ionosphere, 2) Ascertain whether the tropical storms produce observable gravity wave propagation into the thermosphere, and 3) Determine if gravity waves or electric fields are more likely to produce F-region disturbances. The approach is to assemble a database of F-region measurements coincident with storm occurrence. The study will use ionosonde and incoherent scatter radar measurements made at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. After assembling the database, the data will be analyzed for F-region disturbances, the relative position and strength of any associated tropical storm, and variations in F-region density and electric fields. Understanding the coupling between the ionosphere and other atmospheric regions contributes to knowledge of space weather and its impacts on technical systems.