ABSTRACTS This grant provides equipment to enable the investigators to compare the intonation of three tone languages: Mandarin, Yoruba, and Cantonese. In all three languages, FO contours can be approximated with sparsely placed tonal targets. Chinese tones typically have two targets, placed at the beginning and the end of the rhyme. However, the first target of a rising tone is delayed to the center of the rhyme. An innovative analysis of Yoruba tonal target placement drastically simplifies Yoruba tonal phonology. Each tone in Yoruba has a single target. H(igh) and L(ow) targets are aligned with the end of the rhyme, but M(id) target is aligned with the beginning. This alignment automatically accounts for the 'spreading' phenomenon traditionaly handled by a phonological rule. Data on the scaling of tonal target confirms that global downtrend can be viewed as the combination of many factors. Declination effect found in sequence of like targets is strongest in L sequence and less in H sequence, so is final lowering, which affects the final syllable. Catathesis (downstep) is restricted to alternating L H sequence. The amount of lowering depends on the pitch level of the L target. Mid tones, however, do not have strong catathesis effect.