The primary objective of this Dissertation Improvement proposal is to investigate the proportions and size of the upper body in Neandertals, early modern humans and modern human groups. The question of the relationship of Neandertals to early modern humans and of both to modern humans is very much open to discussion. This research will investigate aspects of those relationships as seen in the body size, robusticity and shape in the skeletal remains from each group. Using statistics the PIs hope to elucidate constellations of features in the morphology of the upper body that set each of these groups off from the others. The study will contribute to the understanding of the place of Neandertals in human evolution and the nature of their adaptations.