The measurements to be carried out by Dr. Atkinson are for the purpose of testing a recently published theory. This is a good illustration of an experimentalist being able to apply classical solution thermodynamics to test a theory that describes a real system. Developing and testing against experimental measurements theories, which are based on models of physical systems can lead to refinement of the models and thus to better understanding of physical phenomena. There are a class of electrolytes termed "bolaform electrolytes" because they contain two charges separated by a rigid or flexible uncharged chain. They represent a class of electrolytes intermediate between polyelectrolytes and simple electrolytes. A variety of thermodynamic measurements on unusual compounds will be carried out by Dr. Atkinson. The compounds to be studied have been selected because they are rigid and there is an increasing distance between the two charged centers; as a consequence, there is a goal to develop a theoretical understanding of the results. A two year standard grant is provided to carry out the experimental measurements and test modern statistical mechanical theory.