This award supports the development of microelectrode array technologies that can be used to directly monitor, on a second-by-second basis, neurotransmitter signaling in the brains of laboratory animals. The devices are formed on ceramic wafers analogous to microelectrode chips. The resulting microelectrode arrays can be mass fabricated for general scientific use and can be configured to directly measure second-by-second changes in the neurotransmitters glutamate, acetylcholine and GABA and other molecules. The present technology can be carried out in anesthetized animal preparations, brain slices and cellular systems. In addition, the technology can be adapted for studies in awake behaving animals so that neurotransmitter changes in the brain can be directly related to behavior and function. When perfected, this technology will be widely used by basic scientists in the fields of neuroscience and neurobiology, and may contribute to other applications with scientists developing biosensor devices. The development of the ceramic-based microelectrode array technology could allow for linking behavior with brain function and a further understanding of learning and memory, epilepsy, movement processes, drug abuse, brain systems and a variety of neuronal systems that all use glutamate, acetylcholine and GABA as their primary neurotransmitters. A variety of improvements to microelectrode design include 1) enhanced selectivity for the neurotransmitters glutamate, acetylcholine and GABA; 2) development of methodology to implement the recording technology inexpensively so that other laboratories can afford this state-of-the-art technology; 3) development of the technology for awake animals so that investigators can study the direct links between brain systems and behavior; and 4) development of nanotechnology approaches to enhance the recording properties of the microelectrodes.