Forensic scientists require methods and procedures for identifying and typing the human blood and body fluids encountered in cases of homicide, assault, robbery, sexual assault and other crimes against persons. The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique offers a desirable alternative to present procedures. Its major advantages are increased sensitivity, ability to utilize recently developed, highly specific monoclonal antibodies in its tests, and the ability to introduce new levels of quantitation and instrumental objectivity in interpreting test results. Modern ELISA instrumentation, its use and applications are revolutionizing forensic tests on blood, body fluids and stains. In addition, the isoelectric focusing (IEF) technique offers many advantages over earlier electrophoretic procedures for typing blood and body fluid stains. Its advantages include the ability to recognize more genetic types in several systems and thus to improve individualization of stains left by biological materials. The application of IEF to the genetic typing of blood and body fluid stains increases the capabilities of forensic scientists, enabling them to provide more and better evidence to the justice system they serve. Through the help of this grant, future forensic specialists in this model program are being trained on state-of-the-art apparatus. This project constitutes a striking example of science serving society in helping to demonstrate the guilt or innocence of persons accused of violent crimes.