This proposal is to support participation by US scientists in the 31st International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics and Contemporary Needs in Islamabad, Pakistan in June-July 2006. The Pakistani organizer is Professor Riazuddin, Director, National Center for Physics, Quaid-Azam University, Islamabad. The request by Dr. Talaat Rahman, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas is to cover U.S. participation in the workshop. The annual International Nathiagali Summer College (INSC) has served as a vibrant center of activity for scientists in the region. In two week-long sessions, lectures and discussions are held on a range of subjects of current interest in Physics which find applications in the contemporary needs of developing nations. Topics are selected with the aim of providing a synoptic view of latest advances and trends in the fields with the goal of attracting newcomers to the area. INSC is attended by laboratory and industrial researchers, university professors, college teachers, and graduate students. The speakers are generally from the U.S. and Europe, while the participants come from countries in North Africa, the Middle East and South Asia, as well as China. US based scientists continue to form the major group of speakers/faculty for INSC. One reasons for this interest is the opportunity INSC provides US scientists for establishing useful links with scientists from a number of developing countries. While developing countries gain from the transfer of scientific and technological knowledge, these collaborations and scientific exchanges also benefit US scientists. The movement of talented students and postdoctorates to universities in the United States as a result of this interaction has been mutually advantageous. The INSC has had a broad impact and proven to be an effective forum for establishing strong links among scientists and for broader dissemination of scientific knowledge. In this year's College, the first week is dedicated to topics in Quantum Informatics and Quantum Devices, and the second to issues in the applications of Synchrotron Radiation to problems in Nano-Science. Boarding, lodging, and all other local costs of the speakers will be borne by the Pakistani hosts. All expenses for participants from Pakistan and regional countries will also be provided by the Pakistani hosts and other agencies like the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Italy, and CERN. Intellectual merit: The project will provide an avenue for analysis and understanding of timely issues in selected areas of Quantum Informatics, Quantum Devices, and in nano-scale science as revealed through applications of Synchrotron Radiation. The activity will continue to enable US scientists to disseminate the results of their research to an international community and provide opportunities for recruiting personnel for research collaborations, education and training. Broader impact: The workshop will generate a large clientele with interests in scientific thinking and education in the US. Eventually these types of activities are expected to create a more scientifically aware society worldwide and provide more room for rational thinking, education and creativity. The US participants are to include at least 4 junior scientists and three female scientists.