Defensive behavior is controlled by physical and chemical events within the central nervous system. These events are influenced by environmental, hormonal and genetic factors. Dr. Caroline Blanchard is a expert on the behavioral aspects of defense. This Career Advancement Award is made for the purpose of advanced training in new techniques so that Dr. Blanchard can enhance her skills in the areas of the neuroanatomical and neurochemical bases of defensive behavior. The technique of receptor binding autoradiography will be used to demonstrate where in the brain specific chemicals are active and what factors can change the binding patterns. The technique of direct chemical stimulation will be used to explore which brain sites and which chemical transmitter signals are important in influencing specific behaviors. Neuroendocrinological techniques will focus on the role of brain hormones. By studying connections among different neural groups, the circuits involved in behavior can be determined. Part of this award involves collaborative research with a group of Russian neuroscientists who are interested in genetic aspects of behavioral defense systems. Knowledge gained from these studies will lead to an increased understanding of the neural mechanisms of defense.