Using Epulopiscium as a model, this project will address a fundamental problem faced by all large cells; that is, how a large cell overcomes constraints imposed on it by the diffusion coefficients of bioactive molecules. With cigar-shaped cells reaching 600 microns by 80 microns, Epulopiscium spp. are the largest heterotrophic bacteria described to date. The presence of repetitive DNA located at the periphery of the cytoplasm may be a significant adaptation to maintain large cell size and high metabolic activity in Epulopiscium. This research project will further characterize this adaptation and its impact on biomolecule production and distribution. These results will provide important insights into the fundamental cellular issue of getting molecules (energy and nutrients) to distinct locations within a cell in a timely fashion. The project provides significant educational and training opportunities for graduate, undergraduate and high school students interested in the sciences. Although Epulopiscium is exceptional in the bacterial world it is an exciting model for conveying basic concepts of the bacterial cell. The fact that Epulopiscium spp. are so large, but not pathogenic, makes them good representatives of the microbial world, not only for biology students but for the general public as well. To facilitate information flow, a website featuring Epulopiscium biology will be developed. It will use Epulopiscium as a central model to introduce topics ranging from nanobiotechnology to the diversity of low G+C Gram positive bacteria (including information about pathogens like Bacillus anthracis).