Health disparities continue to exist between and within populations and little is known about the causes of population differences observed in tobacco use, nicotine dependence, and related diseases. More importantly, an age-race paradox exists in which African American youth consistently report lower prevalence of tobacco use than their Caucasian counterparts, yet African American adult smokers suffer a disproportionate burden of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. Nicotine dependence is the most formidable impediment to quitting smoking among adolescents. Despite the recognition of the central role of nicotine dependence in smoking cessation, there is a paucity of information about how nicotine dependence is expressed among youth who smoke. For these reasons, researchers have called for additional research to address the insufficient understanding of and gap in the literature on adolescent nicotine dependence and its impact on cessation. Thus, I describe a plan to examine critical factors of nicotine dependence among urban African American youth utilizing individual and group (class) trajectory analysis (Study 1) as well as mixed methods research, including a validated measure of nicotine dependence, focus groups, and in-depth interviews (Study 2) to elucidate the complexities of adolescent nicotine dependence.

Public Health Relevance

African Americans bear the greatest burden of death and illness due to cigarette smoking. Most adults began smoking as adolescents and nicotine dependence is a critical barrier in quitting smoking. This Award will allow me to examine the nicotine dependence experiences of both adults and youth to better understand how we can help African American youth quit smoking.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Research Scientist Development Award - Research & Training (K01)
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Subcommittee G - Education (NCI)
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Wali, Anil
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University of Maryland College Park
Schools of Public Health
College Park
United States
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Sterling, Kymberle L; Fryer, Craig S; Fagan, Pebbles (2016) The Most Natural Tobacco Used: A Qualitative Investigation of Young Adult Smokers' Risk Perceptions of Flavored Little Cigars and Cigarillos. Nicotine Tob Res 18:827-33
Brooks, Alyssa Todaro; Krumlauf, Michael; Fryer, Craig S et al. (2016) Critical Transitions: A Mixed Methods Examination of Sleep from Inpatient Alcohol Rehabilitation Treatment to the Community. PLoS One 11:e0161725
Sterling, Kymberle Landrum; Fryer, Craig S; Pagano, Ian et al. (2016) Little Cigars and Cigarillos Use Among Young Adult Cigarette Smokers in the United States: Understanding Risk of Concomitant Use Subtypes. Nicotine Tob Res 18:2234-2242
Fryer, Craig S; Passmore, Susan R; Maietta, Raymond C et al. (2016) The Symbolic Value and Limitations of Racial Concordance in Minority Research Engagement. Qual Health Res 26:830-41
Sterling, Kymberle L; Fryer, Craig S; Majeed, Ban et al. (2015) Promotion of waterpipe tobacco use, its variants and accessories in young adult newspapers: a content analysis of message portrayal. Health Educ Res 30:152-61
Sterling, Kymberle L; Fryer, Craig S; Nix, Meghan et al. (2015) Appeal and Impact of Characterizing Flavors on Young Adult Small Cigar Use. Tob Regul Sci 1:42-53
Fagan, Pebbles; Pohkrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus et al. (2015) Comparisons of three nicotine dependence scales in a multiethnic sample of young adult menthol and non-menthol smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend 149:203-11
Butler 3rd, James; Quinn, Sandra C; Fryer, Craig S et al. (2013) Characterizing researchers by strategies used for retaining minority participants: results of a national survey. Contemp Clin Trials 36:61-7
Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Garza, Mary A; Butler, James et al. (2012) Improving informed consent with minority participants: results from researcher and community surveys. J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics 7:44-55
Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Butler 3rd, James; Fryer, Craig S et al. (2012) Attributes of researchers and their strategies to recruit minority populations: results of a national survey. Contemp Clin Trials 33:1231-7

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