Is it true that males are healthier than females but die younger? If so, why? We plan demographic analyses to address these two overarching questions concerning the health-survival paradox. First, to what extent is the paradox true? How general is it? * According to which definitions and measures and along which dimensions are men healthier than women? * How do male-female morbidity and mortality differences vary with age? * How do they vary over place? * How have they varied over time? * How do they vary across species of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish? Second, to the extent that the paradox is true, why is this the case? Various social and biological hypotheses will be tested by analyzing: Human and nonhuman lifetables (Project 1); Survey and register data on humans in Denmark (Project 2); Survey data on humans in the United States (Project 3) and in Japan, the Philippines and Singapore (Project 4); Longitudinal observations on baboons in the wild in Kenya (Project 5); Longitudinal data on lemurs in the wild on Madagascar and in captivity at Duke and in France (Project 6);and Laboratory data on fruit flies (Project 7). The combination of informative animal models and high-quality human data and sophisticated demographic analyses will provide a deeper understanding of the basis for sex differences in health and survival and of opportunities to reduce these differences.
Is it true that males are healthier than females but die younger? If so, why? This program project supports research projects that address these questions concerning the human health-survival paradox. Findings will provide a deeper understanding of the basis for sex differences in health and survival-and of the opportunities that society and particularly health professionals have to improve health and survival for males and females.
|Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune et al. (2017) Early-life mortality risks in opposite-sex and same-sex twins: a Danish cohort study of the twin testosterone transfer hypothesis. Ann Epidemiol 27:115-120.e2|
|Miller, Elizabeth A; Livermore, Joshua A; Alberts, Susan C et al. (2017) Ovarian cycling and reproductive state shape the vaginal microbiota in wild baboons. Microbiome 5:8|
|Jones, Owen R; Vaupel, James W (2017) Senescence is not inevitable. Biogerontology 18:965-971|
|Zeng, Yi; Feng, Qiushi; Hesketh, Therese et al. (2017) Survival, disabilities in activities of daily living, and physical and cognitive functioning among the oldest-old in China: a cohort study. Lancet 389:1619-1629|
|Brasher, Melanie Sereny; George, Linda K; Shi, Xiaoming et al. (2017) Incorporating biomarkers into the study of socio-economic status and health among older adults in China. SSM Popul Health 3:577-585|
|Oksuzyan, Anna; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Christensen, Kaare et al. (2017) A Cross-National Study of the Gender Gap in Health Among Older Adults in India and China: Similarities and Disparities. Gerontologist :|
|Colchero, Fernando; Rau, Roland; Jones, Owen R et al. (2016) The emergence of longevous populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113:E7681-E7690|
|Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne et al. (2016) Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons. Nat Commun 7:11181|
|Wall, Jeffrey D; Schlebusch, Stephen A; Alberts, Susan C et al. (2016) Genomewide ancestry and divergence patterns from low-coverage sequencing data reveal a complex history of admixture in wild baboons. Mol Ecol 25:3469-83|
|Ahrenfeldt, Linda J; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören et al. (2016) Differences in Religiousness in Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twins in a Secular Society. Twin Res Hum Genet 19:35-46|
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