Plans for Accrual of Women and Minorities According to the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene cancer mortality rates have fallen in New York City by more than 29% between 1994 and 2008. However, not all New Yorkers have benefited from advances in clinical care and access to screening, diagnostic and treatment services. Low income, race/ethnicity, and screening access continue to drive disparities in cancer incidence and mortality. Minority The Biomarkers Shared Resource (Biomarkers SR) is a joint resource of the Cancer Center and Columbia's NIEHS Environmental Health in Northern Manhattan. It provides a centralized, efficient and cost-effective resource for receiving, handling and storing human samples that are collected as part of research studies in molecular epidemiology and other types of cancer-related research. Services provided include: Consultation on sample processing Preparation of kits for bio-specimen collection Processing and storage of blood components, including cells and plasma Storage of other body fluids, including urine, sputum, and oral cells Isolation of DNA/RNA with quality controls Maintenance of a sample inventory Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and DNA methylation by Pyrosequencing Consultation Is provided on all aspects of sample collection and processing for specific studies including the types of tubes needed for sample collection, shipment methods, separation of specific fractions, number of aliquots, etc. The samples processed and/or stored Include blood, urine, oral cells, sputum and microscope slides of smeared cells. Thus, the Biomarkers SR fills an important role as a repository for types of samples, primarily from body fluids, that are not included in the Molecular Pathology tumor bank. Coded samples are received by the facility and processed into appropriate fractions (e.g., plasma, mononuclear cells, granulocytes, total white blood cells and red blood cells) and frozen in multiple aliquots in more that one freezer whenever possible. A web-based database of the sample inventory is maintained and samples retrieved as specified in the governing protocol. A telephone alarm system is used to ensure sample safety Additional services include DNA isolation from buccal and white blood cells and plasma and serum, RNA isolating including microRNAs, whole genome amplification of limited DNA samples, and genotyping for single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes, and DNA methylation assays. Samples from over 27,000 subjects participating in 83 different studies, 64 cancer-related, are currently stored in the Biomarkers SR with many new studies initiated in the current grant cycle. It contributed to 82 peer-reviewed publications. Future plans include expansion of patient recruitment to additional cancer sites. The operating budget is $299,118, of which we are requesting $68,517 from the CCSG. enrollment in interventional clinical trials at the HICCC appears low when examined in its overall rates, however when enrollment from the surrounding community is examined, enrollment by minority patients is exactly proportional to the population demographics of the community, as demonstrated above. Overall enrollment of minorities represents a slightly lower proportion of clinical trial enrollees because a large proportion of patients at HICCC do not come from the surrounding community. Rather these patients are derived from referrals that are from beyond the surrounding community and encompass multiple counties of the Tri-state area and represent a different population distribution both in race and ethnicity, as well as in socioeconomic indicators, particularly when accounting for the self- selection of those patients able to travel farther to receive care. In order to Increase overall minority enrollment, HICCC has focused on initiatives that involve outreach, education, prevention and screening, as well as increasing participation in both non-interventional and interventional research (via RRMO) as well as direct efforts to increase availability of clinical trials so that more patients can be enrolled on trials at the HICCC.
Both epidemiologic and clinical cancer research studies are highly relevant to public health, and these studies require specimens from body fluids (blood, urine, sputum, etc.) from human subjects. The Biomarkers Shared Resource provides a centralized facility where such samples are processed and stored with appropriate quality control.
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