Title: Ecology of African Highland Malaria In the past decade, massive scale-up of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), together with the introduction of artemisinin-combination treatments, have led to substantial reductions in malaria prevalence and incidence in African highlands. However, rising insecticide resistance and increased outdoor transmission have greatly hampered the effectiveness of ITN and IRS because the current indoor-based interventions do not target the outdoor-biting mosquitoes. Consequently, most highland sites maintain sustained low- level transmission while some others have recently experienced resurgence in malaria rates. Therefore, new supplemental interventions that can tackle outdoor transmission and pyrethroid insecticide resistance are urgently needed. The central objective of this competing renewal application is to determine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of EPA-approved long-lasting microbial larvicides in reducing malaria transmission and clinical malaria incidence in western Kenya highlands. The three specific aims are: 1) to examine mechanisms regulating larval habitat productivity, 2) to determine the efficacy of long-lasting microbial larvicides on the reduction of malaria transmission and clinical malaria incidence using a cluster randomized study, and 3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of the long-lasting microbial larviciding program as compared to other malaria control interventions and evaluate its impact on non-target organisms. Through comprehensive evaluation of potentially cost-effective long-lasting microbial larvicides, this project will provide critically needed data on whether long-lasting microbial larvicides can be scaled up as a supplemental malaria control tool to further reduce malaria incidence in African highlands. Malaria outdoor transmission control is presently a highly significant and urgent issue in malaria control across Africa, and thus, our results will have broad implications on malaria prevention and control in endemic and epidemic regions of Africa.

Public Health Relevance

Insecticide resistance and outdoor transmission are major new challenges in malaria control in Africa today. This project will determine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of long-lasting microbial larvicides in malaria control in western Kenya highland, proving critically needed data on whether of long-lasting microbial larviciding should be scaled up to supplement existing malaria control tools.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
2R01AI050243-12
Application #
8698140
Study Section
Vector Biology Study Section (VB)
Program Officer
Costero, Adriana
Project Start
2001-09-01
Project End
2019-02-28
Budget Start
2014-03-01
Budget End
2015-02-28
Support Year
12
Fiscal Year
2014
Total Cost
$655,678
Indirect Cost
$172,885
Name
University of California Irvine
Department
Type
Schools of Public Health
DUNS #
046705849
City
Irvine
State
CA
Country
United States
Zip Code
92697
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Ototo, Ednah N; Mbugi, Jenard P; Wanjala, Christine L et al. (2015) Surveillance of malaria vector population density and biting behaviour in western Kenya. Malar J 14:244
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Lo, Eugenia; Zhou, Guofa; Oo, Winny et al. (2015) Low parasitemia in submicroscopic infections significantly impacts malaria diagnostic sensitivity in the highlands of Western Kenya. PLoS One 10:e0121763
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Wanjala, Christine L; Zhou, Guofa; Mbugi, Jernard et al. (2015) Insecticidal decay effects of long-lasting insecticide nets and indoor residual spraying on Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis in Western Kenya. Parasit Vectors 8:588
Zhou, Guofa; Afrane, Yaw A; Malla, Sameer et al. (2015) Active case surveillance, passive case surveillance and asymptomatic malaria parasite screening illustrate different age distribution, spatial clustering and seasonality in western Kenya. Malar J 14:41
Badu, Kingsley; Gyan, Ben; Appawu, Maxwell et al. (2015) Serological evidence of vector and parasite exposure in Southern Ghana: the dynamics of malaria transmission intensity. Parasit Vectors 8:251
Wang, Xiaohong; Afrane, Yaw A; Yan, Guiyun et al. (2015) Constructing a Genome-Wide LD Map of Wild A. gambiae Using Next-Generation Sequencing. Biomed Res Int 2015:238139

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