Barriers to appropriate HIV treatment and care for HIV-infected injection drug users (IDU) are a growing concern. International efforts to improve the delivery of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to IDU, such as the WHO'S 3 by 5 Initiative, are in urgent need of data on how these barriers can be addressed. While there has been much focus on HIV prevention for HIV-negative IDU, there has recently been a growing recognition that breaking the cycle of HIV transmission will require renewed focus on behaviors and prevention needs of HIV-infected IDU. This proposal seeks to fill the information gap existing in North America and elsewhere through the following specific aims: 1. To evaluate the incidence of HIV/AIDS service uptake (e.g., antiretroviral therapy) and factors associated with uptake among IDU 2. To evaluate the incidence of HIV antiretroviral drug resistance among HIV-infected IDU and the role of unique antiretroviral delivery models on the time to antiretroviral resistance 3. To evaluate trends in HIV disease progression and factors such as medical service and secondary prevention service use that may be associated with reduced disease progression among IDU 4. To determine factors associated with persistent HIV risk behaviors (e.g., syringe lending) in a setting with comprehensive evidence-based HIV prevention strategies for HIV-infected IDU.
These aims will be met through the development of a new prospective cohort study of HIV-infected IDU in Vancouver, Canada. This setting is unique, since all medical care and antiretrovirals are provided free of charge through a universal healthcare system, allowing the research program to focus on non-financial barriers to care. The cohort will involve serial blood sampling to evaluate antiretroviral resistance patterns, a detailed questionnaire to evaluate illicit drug use and related behaviors, and ongoing administrative linkages to the province's centralized medical care and social service databases to evaluate access to antiretrovirals and access to other HIV/AIDS care and prevention services. By helping to fill a critical information gap, this study has the potential to make a major contribution to public health policies for IDU.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Research Project (R01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Behavioral and Social Consequences of HIV/AIDS Study Section (BSCH)
Program Officer
Lambert, Elizabeth
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
University of British Columbia
Zip Code
V6 1-Z3
Prangnell, Amy; Dong, Huiru; Daly, Patricia et al. (2017) Declining rates of health problems associated with crack smoking during the expansion of crack pipe distribution in Vancouver, Canada. BMC Public Health 17:163
McNeil, Ryan; Kerr, Thomas; Coleman, Bill et al. (2017) Antiretroviral Therapy Interruption Among HIV Postive People Who Use Drugs in a Setting with a Community-Wide HIV Treatment-as-Prevention Initiative. AIDS Behav 21:402-409
Walton, Geoffrey; Dong, Huiru; Milloy, M J et al. (2017) Increasing availability of benzodiazepines among people who inject drugs in a Canadian setting. Subst Abus :1-8
Landsberg, Adina; Shannon, Kate; Krüsi, Andrea et al. (2017) Criminalizing Sex Work Clients and Rushed Negotiations among Sex Workers Who Use Drugs in a Canadian Setting. J Urban Health 94:563-571
Nolan, Seonaid; Buxton, Jane; Dobrer, Sabina et al. (2017) Awareness, Possession, and Use of Take-Home Naloxone Among Illicit Drug Users, Vancouver, British Columbia, 2014-2015. Public Health Rep 132:563-569
Hayashi, Kanna; Milloy, M-J; Lysyshyn, Mark et al. (2017) Substance use patterns associated with recent exposure to fentanyl among people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada: A cross-sectional urine toxicology screening study. Drug Alcohol Depend 183:1-6
Damon, Will; Small, Will; Anderson, Solanna et al. (2017) 'Crisis' and 'everyday' initiators: A qualitative study of coercion and agency in the context of methadone maintenance treatment initiation. Drug Alcohol Rev 36:253-260
Lake, Stephanie; Kerr, Thomas; Capler, Rielle et al. (2017) High-intensity cannabis use and HIV clinical outcomes among HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Int J Drug Policy 42:63-70
Kennedy, Mary Clare; McNeil, Ryan; Milloy, M-J et al. (2017) Residential eviction and exposure to violence among people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Int J Drug Policy 41:59-64
Socías, M Eugenia; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan et al. (2017) Intentional cannabis use to reduce crack cocaine use in a Canadian setting: A longitudinal analysis. Addict Behav 72:138-143

Showing the most recent 10 out of 163 publications