Chronic inflammation observed in obesity has been implicated in the development of medically important complications, particularly atherosclerosis, cancer, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Macrophages, key mediators of inflammation, have been shown to contribute significantly to the development of these disorders. Despite considerable attention, however, there is little information thus far on the mechanism through which macrophages are differentially regulated by various inflammation- related adipokines (e.g., adiponectin and resistin) secreted by adipocytes. Is there a common molecular mediator in macrophages for various adipokines? Do various adipokines signal through distinctive pathways in macrophages? Remarkably, our recent data support the notion that macrophage TORC2 (for Transducers Of Regulated CREB activity 2) controls macrophage activation via a unique mechanism, involving nuclear-cytosolic shuttling of TORC2, upon stimulation by specific adipokines. Our two hypotheses are: (i) the adipokine signaling pathways mediated by adiponectin and resistin converge on macrophage TORC2;(ii) nuclear-cytosolic shuttling of TORC2 determines whether macrophages are activated, an event which controls inflammation and influences the pathophysiology of insulin resistance. These hypotheses place TORC2 as the key player that links systemic inflammatory effects of obesity to insulin resistance. Using the state-of-art biochemical and immunological approaches together with metabolic phenotyping, we will test these hypotheses with the following three Specific Aims: (1) to delineate the signaling pathway by which adipokines regulate TORC2 activity in macrophages, focusing on identification of the responsive kinase and phosphatase;(2) to validate the physiological importance of TORC2 in inflammation and insulin resistance in a macrophage-specific transgenic mouse model expressing a constitutively active TORC2 mutant;(3) to further elucidate the role of TORC2 in inflammation and insulin resistance in a loss-of-function TORC2 mouse model generated using bone marrow transplantation. Confirmation of the hypotheses will identify key molecules required for adipokine signaling of the macrophages and intracellular events leading to macrophage activation. Relevance to human health: Delineating the signaling pathway(s) will establish a pivotal mechanism for obesity- induced insulin resistance and related chronic diseases. It will provide one or more candidate targets for drug intervention in conditions exacerbated by chronic inflammation, and possibly establish TORC2 or its interacting partners as early markers of the onset of chronic inflammation.

Public Health Relevance

This proposal investigates the molecular basis of adipokine signaling in macrophages in the context of obesity and its-related inflammatory disorders including atherosclerosis, cancer and diabetes. Delineating the signaling pathway(s) will establish a pivotal mechanism for obesity-induced insulin resistance and related chronic diseases. It will provide one or more candidate targets for drug intervention in conditions exacerbated by chronic inflammation, and possibly establish TORC2 or its interacting partners as early markers of the onset of chronic inflammation.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01DK082582-05
Application #
8385576
Study Section
Integrative Physiology of Obesity and Diabetes Study Section (IPOD)
Program Officer
Abraham, Kristin M
Project Start
2009-01-10
Project End
2014-11-30
Budget Start
2012-12-01
Budget End
2014-11-30
Support Year
5
Fiscal Year
2013
Total Cost
$237,724
Indirect Cost
$83,358
Name
Cornell University
Department
Nutrition
Type
Schools of Earth Sciences/Natur
DUNS #
872612445
City
Ithaca
State
NY
Country
United States
Zip Code
14850
Sha, Haibo; Sun, Shengyi; Francisco, Adam B et al. (2014) The ER-associated degradation adaptor protein Sel1L regulates LPL secretion and lipid metabolism. Cell Metab 20:458-70
Xia, Sheng; Li, Xiaoping; Cheng, Lu et al. (2014) Chronic intake of high fish oil diet induces myeloid-derived suppressor cells to promote tumor growth. Cancer Immunol Immunother 63:663-73
Ji, Yewei; Sun, Shengyi; Goodrich, Julia K et al. (2014) Diet-induced alterations in gut microflora contribute to lethal pulmonary damage in TLR2/TLR4-deficient mice. Cell Rep 8:137-49
Sun, Shengyi; Shi, Guojun; Han, Xuemei et al. (2014) Sel1L is indispensable for mammalian endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation, endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis, and survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:E582-91
Qi, Ling (2014) Tipping the balance in metabolic regulation: regulating regulatory T cells by costimulation. Diabetes 63:1179-81
Yang, Liu; Sha, Haibo; Davisson, Robin L et al. (2013) Phenformin activates the unfolded protein response in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner. J Biol Chem 288:13631-8
Sun, Shengyi; Xia, Sheng; Ji, Yewei et al. (2012) The ATP-P2X7 signaling axis is dispensable for obesity-associated inflammasome activation in adipose tissue. Diabetes 61:1471-8
Ji, Yewei; Sun, Shengyi; Xu, Aimin et al. (2012) Activation of natural killer T cells promotes M2 Macrophage polarization in adipose tissue and improves systemic glucose tolerance via interleukin-4 (IL-4)/STAT6 protein signaling axis in obesity. J Biol Chem 287:13561-71
Francisco, Adam B; Singh, Rajni; Sha, Haibo et al. (2011) Haploid insufficiency of suppressor enhancer Lin12 1-like (SEL1L) protein predisposes mice to high fat diet-induced hyperglycemia. J Biol Chem 286:22275-82
Sha, Haibo; He, Yin; Yang, Liu et al. (2011) Stressed out about obesity: IRE1?-XBP1 in metabolic disorders. Trends Endocrinol Metab 22:374-81

Showing the most recent 10 out of 23 publications