Like other areas of the nervous system, the retina is subject to many acquired and inherited neuronal degenerative diseases. Since the retina provides the input for all visual sensory information to the brain, the loss of cells results in visual impairment and potentially complete blindness. Many retinal degenerative diseases affect only a subset of the retinal cells, although, frequently in more advanced disease, loss and reorganization of the entire retina can occur. It has long been thought that in humans there is no recovery of the degenerated cells;however, there is now increasing evidence that the mammalian retina has a limited capacity for neuronal regeneration, and some components of the regenerative response found in non-mammalian vertebrates are also present in mammals. In fish, new neurons of all types regenerate from Muller glia following retinal damage and they are functionally integrated into the existing circuitry. Regeneration is considerably more limited in birds and rodents, both in quantity and types of neurons generated. Although this may represent a vestigial regenerative response in homoeothermic vertebrates when compared with their cold- blooded relatives, Muller glia, the cellular source for regeneration, are present in all vertebrate retinas. Our recently published data and new preliminary unpublished data indicate that the regenerative response of Muller glia might be limited by inhibitors in their activation of a neurogenic pattern of gene expression. In this proposal we outline experiments to test specific hypotheses about the factors that limit regeneration from the Muller glia in the mammalian retina. The results of these experiments will provide a better understanding of the limits of the regenerative potential of mammalian Muller glia, and may lead to development of novel strategies for treatment of human retinal degeneration.

Public Health Relevance

Like other areas of the nervous system, the retina is subject to many acquired and inherited neuronal degenerative diseases. Since regeneration of new retinal neurons does not occur in people, these diseases can leave them with permanent visual impairment. In this proposal we outline experiments to provide a better understanding of the limits of the regenerative potential of mammalian Muller glia, which may lead to development of novel strategies for treatment of human retinal degeneration.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Eye Institute (NEI)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01EY021482-02
Application #
8241899
Study Section
Biology and Diseases of the Posterior Eye Study Section (BDPE)
Program Officer
Greenwell, Thomas
Project Start
2011-04-01
Project End
2014-03-31
Budget Start
2012-04-01
Budget End
2013-03-31
Support Year
2
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$380,189
Indirect Cost
$130,189
Name
University of Washington
Department
Anatomy/Cell Biology
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
605799469
City
Seattle
State
WA
Country
United States
Zip Code
98195
Ueki, Yumi; Reh, Thomas A (2013) EGF stimulates Muller glial proliferation via a BMP-dependent mechanism. Glia 61:778-89
La Torre, Anna; Georgi, Sean; Reh, Thomas A (2013) Conserved microRNA pathway regulates developmental timing of retinal neurogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:E2362-70
Brzezinski 4th, Joseph A; Uoon Park, Ko; Reh, Thomas A (2013) Blimp1 (Prdm1) prevents re-specification of photoreceptors into retinal bipolar cells by restricting competence. Dev Biol 384:194-204
McUsic, Andrew C; Lamba, Deepak A; Reh, Thomas A (2012) Guiding the morphogenesis of dissociated newborn mouse retinal cells and hES cell-derived retinal cells by soft lithography-patterned microchannel PLGA scaffolds. Biomaterials 33:1396-405
Bermingham-McDonogh, Olivia; Reh, Thomas A (2011) Regulated reprogramming in the regeneration of sensory receptor cells. Neuron 71:389-405