Although arithmetic tutoring narrows the achievement gap between at-risk 1st graders and low-risk classmates on arithmetic problems, the gap for word-problem (WP) achievement steadily widens over the course of that tutoring. This is alarming because WP performance, an early form of complex mathematical reasoning, is the best long-term math predictor of employment and wages in adulthood and because scientific knowledge about early WP development lags behind arithmetic. The focus of this renewal is an innovative approach to preventing WP difficulty by embedding tutoring on language comprehension (LC), a cognitive resource associated with WPs, in the same academic material used to build WP skill. At-risk children are randomly assigned to 4 conditions. WP tutoring alone (the conventional, validated approach) is designed to compensate for limitations in working memory &reasoning. Embedded LC+WP tutoring (the innovative approach) is designed to strengthen LC while compensating for limitations in working memory &reasoning. Arithmetic tutoring is included to assess whether WP, arithmetic, &number knowledge learning is superior for either or both WP tutoring conditions compared to arithmetic tutoring. No tutoring is included to control for maturation and classroom instruction. At-risk children are followed through grade 3. Low-risk classmates are followed on the same measures at the same time points to assess achievement gaps.
Aim 1 is to assess the efficacy of embedded LC+WP tutoring for promoting WP, arithmetic, &number knowledge outcomes and for narrowing the achievement gap in these domains.
Aim 2 is to increase understanding about the role of LC, working memory, and reasoning in WP &arithmetic performance. This renewal has the potential to impact science by providing experimental evidence about the role of LC in WPs and insight into the process by which individual differences in LC, working memory, &reasoning interact with different forms of intervention on different math outcomes. The goal is to improve clinical practice by expanding the framework for preventing mathematics difficulty specifically and academic difficulty generally by assessing the added value of embedded cognitive resource training. If successful, we create the basis for scientific work on other forms of embedded cognitive resource training to extend the framework for academic intervention. This effort also provides a platform for transdisciplinary work across learning sciences, speech-language sciences, cognitive psychology, text comprehension, and learning disabilities. This transdisciplinary work is critical because current evidence indicates that LC difficulty negatively impacts response to academic intervention.

Public Health Relevance

Mathematics disabilities are common and have major, negative impact on employment, social relationships, health, and quality of life. This research focuses on improving word-problem (WP) performance at 1st grade, because school-age WP performance is the best math predictor of employment and wages in adulthood;because scientific knowledge about early WP development lags behind calculations;and because the WP achievement gap widens dramatically for at-risk 1st graders even when they receive arithmetic tutoring.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
2R01HD053714-06A1
Application #
8629014
Study Section
Child Psychopathology and Developmental Disabilities Study Section (CPDD)
Program Officer
Mann Koepke, Kathy M
Project Start
2006-07-01
Project End
2019-03-31
Budget Start
2014-04-10
Budget End
2015-03-31
Support Year
6
Fiscal Year
2014
Total Cost
$606,789
Indirect Cost
$193,311
Name
Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Department
Other Health Professions
Type
Schools of Education
DUNS #
004413456
City
Nashville
State
TN
Country
United States
Zip Code
37212
Fuchs, Lynn S; Geary, David C; Fuchs, Douglas et al. (2016) Pathways to Third-Grade Calculation Versus Word-Reading Competence: Are They More Alike or Different? Child Dev 87:558-67
Fuchs, Lynn S; Gilbert, Jennifer K; Powell, Sarah R et al. (2016) The role of cognitive processes, foundational math skill, and calculation accuracy and fluency in word-problem solving versus prealgebraic knowledge. Dev Psychol 52:2085-2098
Price, Gavin R; Fuchs, Lynn S (2016) The Mediating Relation between Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Foundations of Math Competence. PLoS One 11:e0148981
Peng, Peng; Namkung, Jessica M; Fuchs, Douglas et al. (2016) A longitudinal study on predictors of early calculation development among young children at risk for learning difficulties. J Exp Child Psychol 152:221-241
Iuculano, Teresa; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Richardson, Jennifer et al. (2015) Cognitive tutoring induces widespread neuroplasticity and remediates brain function in children with mathematical learning disabilities. Nat Commun 6:8453
Fuchs, Lynn S; Geary, David C; Fuchs, Douglas et al. (2014) Sources of Individual Differences in Emerging Competence With Numeration Understanding Versus Multidigit Calculation Skill. J Educ Psychol 106:482-498
Vukovic, Rose K; Fuchs, Lynn S; Geary, David C et al. (2014) Sources of individual differences in children's understanding of fractions. Child Dev 85:1461-76
Fuchs, Lynn S; Geary, David C; Compton, Donald L et al. (2013) Effects of First-Grade Number Knowledge Tutoring With Contrasting Forms of Practice. J Educ Psychol 105:58-77
Fuchs, Lynn S; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L (2013) Intervention effects for students with comorbid forms of learning disability: understanding the needs of nonresponders. J Learn Disabil 46:534-48
Powell, Sarah R; Fuchs, Lynn S (2012) Early Numerical Competencies and Students with Mathematics Difficulty. Focus Except Child 44:1-16

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