The pulmonary manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) reflect a failure of lung defense leading to chronic airways bacterial infection. Several key aspects of the pathogenesis of early CF lung disease must be understood for best treatment approaches and biomarker development, including the observations that there is minimal CF lung disease at birth and that disease onset/progression is highly heterogeneous. Based on assumptions that 1) the CF lung exhibits a vulnerability to disease producing "outside" insults;2) the "vulnerability defect" reflects localized loss of mucus clearance mechanisms due to airway surface dehydration, and 3) immobilized, relatively dehydrated mucus masses obstruct airways, stimulate inflammation, and serve as nidus for chronic bacterial infection, we hypothesize that the earliest CF lung disease will be characterized by quantifiable changes in airway mucin hydration/function, mucin stimulated macrophage activation, and airway hypoxia. This proposal will test the hypothesis in a unique CF cohort identified by newborn screening and studied at regular intervals with CT scans and bronchoscopy. Using samples obtained in the successful Australian AREST-CF program, we will develop a triad of novel measurement panels at U. North Carolina including: 1) biochemical and biophysical measurements of mucus hydration/function;2) novel markers of inflammation, focusing on macrophages and 3) microbiome and metabolomic analysis of the spectrum of bacteria and their metabolic environment. We will determine whether these panels can quantify the burden of CF lung disease as defined by chest CT cross- sectionally and longitudinally. In parallel, we will develop minimally invasive, exhaled breath condensate based methods to assess these biomarkers. Successful testing of these hypotheses will generate both novel insights into the pathogenesis of CF lung disease and novel biomarkers to follow disease progression/therapeutic interventions.
Our goal is to understand the earliest changes in cystic fibrosis lung disease, a life shortening disease resulting in respiratory failure, by studying the mucus abnormalities, early inflammation, and the diverse bacteria and their metabolites in lung samples obtained by bronchoscopy. Working together with an existing program that studies CF infants from diagnosis onwards with bronchoscopy and CT scan, we can compare these changes in healthier vs. sicker parts of the lung in the same child and over time. We will also develop non-invasive methods to test for early disease using exhaled breath and these studies will advance our understanding of early changes before overt disease is visible.
|Ehre, Camille; Ridley, Caroline; Thornton, David J (2014) Cystic fibrosis: an inherited disease affecting mucin-producing organs. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 52:136-45|