Falls are a significant issue for older adults with vision impairment. Medical conditions such as glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration that result in vision impairment negatively impact balance. Falling is 1.7 times more likely among older adults with vision impairment. In 2010 there were 9,146,026 older adults treated in emergency rooms for unintentional falls and injuries from falls are expected to cost the nation an estimated $54.9 billion dollars by 2020. Falls can lead to death, depression, and loss of independence. However, impaired balance is a modifiable risk factor for falls. A practical yet innovative falls prevention program has been developed that is designed to enhance balance and proprioception among older adults. This program, U- ExCEL Balancing Act, consists of simple exercises that can be done at home (15 minutes duration-3 times a week) during normal daily activities, requires only one brief training session, and no equipment. This study aims to establish an evidence base documenting the positive impact of Balancing Act exercises on balance and fall prevention for older adults with vision impairment. A randomized controlled trial of older adults with vision impairment (best corrected vision of 20/70 or worse) will be conducted over a 6-month period (control group n = 35 and Balancing Act intervention group n = 35) to determine the impact of Balancing Act on falls, fear of falling, pain, and activity levels. Factors that can be expected to affect its adoption and sustained use such as cost in the community and social support networks in the home will also be investigated. It is hypothesized that the Balancing Act intervention will decrease the number of falls experienced by older adults who have vision impairment by improving their gait and balance, reducing their fear of falling, increasing their physical activity, and reducing their pain.
The specific aims of the research are to: 1) Evaluate the impact of Balancing Act on standing balance control and proprioception for older adults who have vision impairment, using the Tinetti Gait &Balance Test, a validated tool for evaluating gait and balance and predicting fall risk;2) Evaluate the impact of Balancing Act for older adults with vision impairment on falls, fear of falling, physical activity, and pain;and3) Improve adherence to the Balancing Act exercise program by facilitating social networks. Data will be analyzed through: 1) a descriptive assessment of the baseline demographic characteristics of sample members, covariates, and outcome variables, as well as 2) a repeated measures design examining the impact of the intervention on study participants.
Falls can lead to serious injury, death, and loss of independence among older adults, especially those with vision impairment. As the baby boomer generation ages and the number of cases of vision impairment from eye diseases increases, falls prevention programs that are easy for the older adult public to participate in and can result in reduced falls will become increasingly important. The proposed research will test the effectiveness of one such falls prevention program that aims to improve balance and reduce falls and can be used by older adults with vision impairment in rural areas, in their homes, and which is easily adopted by community agencies serving older adults with and without vision impairment.