Each year, 5-10% of patients admitted to acute care hospitals in the United States (1.75- 3.5 million people) acquire an infection while in hospital. Consequences of hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections include prolonged hospital stays, increased pain and discomfort for the patient, and even death. The number of deaths per year caused by nosocomial infections may exceed 100,000. The inflated costs of healthcare run into billions of dollars annually. The number and severity of infections is increasing, with antibiotic resistant strains causing a greater proportion of those infections. ? It is widely accepted that lapses in hygiene can contribute to infections, and that inanimate objects can play a role in the transmission of microbes. Recent laboratory and clinical studies have shown that bacteria can survive for weeks and even months on items such as privacy curtains, computer keyboards, and keypads on medical equipment. Technologies that prevent the proliferation and transmission of microbes without an increase in manpower are needed to supplement other infection control practices to improve patient outcomes. CCL Biomedical has identified a unique biocidal family that kills bacteria and other microbes on contact. The biocide is can be chemically attached to articles under mild conditions. Chemical attachment to a surface reduces migration of the biocide into the environment. Treated surfaces will kill any microbes that settle on the surface. Furthermore, the biocide is not consumed by the microorganism, meaning that the treatment can provide continuous protection. ? During the Phase I program, we will treat a number of model surfaces with our biocidal compounds, and test them for antimicrobial effectiveness using clinically relevant bacteria in laboratory studies. Representative materials include glass, stainless steel, polyurethane, and silicone rubber. During Phase II, microbiological studies will be expanded to include viruses and molds. Treated surfaces will be tested for durability, migration, and longevity. Toxicological testing will also be performed. By developing biocidal surface treatments, we aim to improve the outcome for patients, without adding to the workload of healthcare workers and janitorial staff. Project Summary Each year, 5-10% of patients (1.75-3.5 million people) admitted to acute care hospitals in the United States acquire an infection while in hospital. The total cost to the healthcare industry runs in the billions of dollars, and infections result in increased pain and discomfort for the patient, and approximately 100,000 deaths per year. Although the most important aspect of infection control is hand-washing, inanimate items can play a role in the transmission of infection. We propose to develop a solution that can be applied to medical hardware and furnishings to reduce the viability of microbes that may be transferred between such items and the hands. This will reduce the number of hospital-acquired infections. ? ? ?