Maturation of reward, affect and behavioral control coincides with morphological changes in frontal and limbic brain regions during adolescence and the transition to adulthood. Previous studies from our lab have shown that adolescent rats are far more sensitive to ethanol-induced forebrain neurodegeneration and to inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis. We have also observed in adult mice that adolescent ethanol exposure reduced the volume of the forebrain and several other regions as determined by MRI. In addition to a reduction in MRI volume, histological measurements indicated corresponding reduction of forebrain area and decreased cholinergic neuron density. These pathological changes were associated with functional deficits in reversal learning. This Research Component-7 of the NADIA consortium will extend these studies to determine the long-term consequences of adolescent alcohol exposure. This NADIA Research Component- 7 hypothesizes that adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) treatment will alter adult brain regional cellular structure, neurogenesis, microglia, astrocyte phenotypes and myelin, as well as brain regional MRI volumes and histologic areas. Additional hypotheses are that higher alcohol doses, younger individuals and longer periods of abuse will cause more pathology and will be reflected in diffuse neurocircuitry responses to stress and ethanol challenges. It is further hypothesized that AIE will alter stress and alcohol induction of neuronal activation markers in adults. The following 4 Aims test hypotheses:
Aim 1 will test the hypothesis that AIE alters adult brain neurogenesis and neuroprogenitor-stem cells (NPC).
Aim 2 will test the hypothesis that AIE alters adult brain white matter.
Aim 3 will determine if AIE alters adult brain microglia and astrocytes.
Aim 4 will determine if AIE alters adult brain neuronal responses to stress or ethanol. The proposed studies will be conducted using different AIE protocols that vary age of ethanol exposure, e.g. youth-adolescent-young adult (P25-55), and dose;i.e. binge, heavy and moderate self-administration. Adults following AIE, are assessed for cognition (Barnes maze, learning and reversal learning), affect-anxiety behaviors (elevated plus maze), open field test (center time anxiety-overall locomotor) and social interaction (anxiety). Histochemistry on adult brain cellular structure and composition will be related to MRI regional volumes, DTI structure and behavior. In addition, studies will challenge adult rats with ethanol or stress to investigate neurocircuitry through IHC for neuronal activation markers (e.g. fos, zif268, pERK1/2, pDARPP). It is expected that AIE will have brain region specific effects with younger ages of AIE treatment inducing larger changes in adult brain cell structure. These studies will determine if models of underage drinking result in persistent structural, cellular, and neuronal activation responses that impact adult brain networks and behavior.
|Vetreno, Ryan P; Yaxley, Richard; Paniagua, Beatriz et al. (2016) Diffusion tensor imaging reveals adolescent binge ethanol-induced brain structural integrity alterations in adult rats that correlate with behavioral dysfunction. Addict Biol 21:939-53|
|Crews, Fulton T; Vetreno, Ryan P; Broadwater, Margaret A et al. (2016) Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior. Pharmacol Rev 68:1074-1109|
|Albaugh, Daniel L; Salzwedel, Andrew; Van Den Berge, Nathalie et al. (2016) Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrical and Optogenetic Deep Brain Stimulation at the Rat Nucleus Accumbens. Sci Rep 6:31613|
|Vetreno, Ryan P; Yaxley, Richard; Paniagua, Beatriz et al. (2016) Adult rat cortical thickness changes across age and following adolescent intermittent ethanol treatment. Addict Biol :|
|Crews, Fulton T; Vetreno, Ryan P (2016) Mechanisms of neuroimmune gene induction in alcoholism. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 233:1543-57|
|Sakharkar, Amul J; Vetreno, Ryan P; Zhang, Huaibo et al. (2016) A role for histone acetylation mechanisms in adolescent alcohol exposure-induced deficits in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and neurogenesis markers in adulthood. Brain Struct Funct 221:4691-4703|
|Guizzetti, Marina; Davies, Daryl L; Egli, Mark et al. (2016) Sex and the Lab: An Alcohol-Focused Commentary on the NIH Initiative to Balance Sex in Cell and Animal Studies. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 40:1182-91|
|Liu, W; Crews, F T (2015) Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure enhances ethanol activation of the nucleus accumbens while blunting the prefrontal cortex responses in adult rat. Neuroscience 293:92-108|
|Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth R et al. (2015) Brain pathways to recovery from alcohol dependence. Alcohol 49:435-52|
|Vetreno, Ryan P; Crews, Fulton T (2015) Binge ethanol exposure during adolescence leads to a persistent loss of neurogenesis in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus that is associated with impaired adult cognitive functioning. Front Neurosci 9:35|
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