Human malaria is exclusively vectored by anopheline mosquitoes. In southern Africa the most important of these vector species are An. arabiensis, An. gambiae, and An. funestus, with An. arabiensis having a wider range and considerably greater ecological and biological plasficity. The relafive distribution and abundance of these vectors vary ecologically and geographically. The study sites targeted in this proposal not only reflect differences in malaria transmission biology and intensity, but also ecological differences that affect these vector differences. Transmission biology is largely affected by mosquito behavior and their response to mosquito-based control measures such as insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). ITNs are widely distributed throughout south Africa and represent an enormous investment. ITNs not only provide a physical barrier to mosquitoes, but it is also well known that ITNs repel insects, encouraging mosquitoes to feed on alternative hosts. In some areas of southern Africa, however, mosquitoes have continued to almost exclusively target human hosts, despite the distribution and use of ITNs. Recent data from West Africa have shown that in some areas the repellency, typically induced by ITN use, fails and resistant mosquitoes are not deterred from taking human blood meals. Therefore, understanding the bionomics, foraging behavior, levels of insecficide resistance and population genetics and distribufion are integral for guiding selecfion and implementation of effective and appropriate malaria interventions within the southern African region.
Aim 1) Characterize the bionomics and entomological inoculafion rates (EIR) of malaria vectors in each of the three study sites. Characterize the community structure of malaria vector populations in southern Africa and further characterize the feeding and resfing behavior of Anopheles arabiensis in southern Africa.
Aim 2) Survey insecticide susceptibility of vector populations at all three field sites and to determine the mechanisms of insecficide resistance.
Aim 3) Conduct populafion genefic analysis of Anopheles arabiensis populafions using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers.

Public Health Relevance

The goals of this project are to gain an understanding of the populafion biology, feeding behavior and levels of insecficide resistance of mosquitoes that transmit malaria in southern Africa. This knowledge will help guide the selection and implementation of effective and appropriate malaria interventions within the southern African region.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Type
Research Program--Cooperative Agreements (U19)
Project #
5U19AI089680-03
Application #
8378376
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZAI1-AWA-M)
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
2012-07-01
Budget End
2013-06-30
Support Year
3
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$331,462
Indirect Cost
$78,617
Name
Johns Hopkins University
Department
Type
DUNS #
001910777
City
Baltimore
State
MD
Country
United States
Zip Code
21218
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Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Searle, Kelly; Matakala, Hellen K et al. (2017) Measles and Rubella Seroprevalence Among HIV-infected and Uninfected Zambian Youth. Pediatr Infect Dis J 36:301-306
Ippolito, Matthew M; Searle, Kelly M; Hamapumbu, Harry et al. (2017) House Structure Is Associated with Plasmodium falciparum Infection in a Low-Transmission Setting in Southern Zambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 97:1561-1567
Venter, Nelius; Oliver, Sh?né V; Muleba, Mbanga et al. (2017) Benchmarking insecticide resistance intensity bioassays for Anopheles malaria vector species against resistance phenotypes of known epidemiological significance. Parasit Vectors 10:198
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Stevenson, Jennifer C; Pinchoff, Jessie; Muleba, Mbanga et al. (2016) Spatio-temporal heterogeneity of malaria vectors in northern Zambia: implications for vector control. Parasit Vectors 9:510
Guo, Suqin; He, Lishan; Tisch, Daniel J et al. (2016) Pilot testing of dipsticks as point-of-care assays for rapid diagnosis of poor-quality artemisinin drugs in endemic settings. Trop Med Health 44:15
Stevenson, Jennifer C; Norris, Douglas E (2016) Implicating Cryptic and Novel Anophelines as Malaria Vectors in Africa. Insects 8:

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