MicroRNA (miRNA) genes encode an abundant class of ~22-nucleotide small RNAs that are thought to control gene expression at the post-transcriptional levels. Although the importance of miRNA-mediated gene regulation is now evident, as miRNA genes were shown to play diverse functional roles in animals, their mechanisms of action remain elusive. We have recently found that miRNA genes encoding identical mature miRNAs could have distinct biological activities that are determined by their cognate pre-miRNA loops, revealing unexpected regulatory complexity encoded in the pre-miRNA loops. These findings prompted us to reexamine some of the fundamental assumptions in the miRNA field. It was noted in the original discovery of the C. elegans lin-4 gene that mutations and deletions in lin-4 genes invariably affect including the primary Public Health Relevance Recent discoveries have revealed a fundamental layer of genetic programs controlled by an abundant class of RNA coding genes -- the miRNA genes. Here we will address the mechanisms by which the activity of miRNA genes may be controlled by the unexpected regulatory elements that we have discovered. THE FOLLOWING RESUME SECTIONS WERE PREPARED BY THE SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER TO SUMMARIZE THE OUTCOME OF DISCUSSIONS OF THE REVIEW COMMITTEE ON THE FOLLOWING ISSUES. VERTEBRATE ANIMAL (Resume): ACCEPTABLE COMMITTEE BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS: The budget was recommended as requested. SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICERS NOTES: Since the NIH Director's Pioneer Award applications are reviewed differently from other NIH grant mechanisms, criterion scores and percentiles are not assigned. The comments above represent a summary of the discussion by the interview panel. Please ignore the Administrative Budget Note on page one and the Notice below regarding resubmissions (formerly termed amended) applications as they do not apply to Pioneer Awards.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
Office of The Director, National Institutes of Health (OD)
NIH Director’s Pioneer Award (NDPA) (DP1)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZGM1-NDPA-B (02))
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Jones, Warren
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Stanford University
Schools of Medicine
United States
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