With the advent of the age of antibiotics in the 1940s, many believed that we had conquered thesedangerous microbes. However, it quickly became apparent that the ability of bacteria to evolve resistance hadbeen sorely underestimated and today, infectious diseases are the second-leading cause of death worldwideand the third-leading cause of mortality in economically advanced countries. The ever-growing and significantproblem of antibacterial resistance requires discovery of new leads. However, identification of the nextgenerations of antibiotics will necessitate a change in the current drug discovery paradigm. Pursuit ofcompounds that function through the commonly targeted mechanisms of action will not yield the combination ofantibiotic potency and long-term efficacy necessary to combat resistant organisms. In fact, compounds thatattack microbes through multiple, simultaneous mechanisms will be essential to anti-infective development.Given the anticipated therapeutic benefits of modulation of bacterial virulence and host innate immunity, we willfocus our efforts on the identification of compounds possessing these activities. The proposed work will facilitate discovery of antibacterial agents by transforming the ways in whichnatural product are both explored and exploited. Although natural products have historically provided themajority of treatments for infectious disease, the exceptional potential of nature's molecular repertoire is stilllargely untapped because the current approaches used in their discovery are fundamentally limited in bothscope and power. Thus, there is tremendous need for development of methods that can investigate theconfluence of natural product space and antibiotic space. To accomplish this goal, we will apply ourchemoselective natural products isolation technology, which facilitates compound enrichment by reversiblecapture of a specified functional group class onto solid support, to the exploration of natural products. Thistagging technology will also be utilized in the creation of a novel natural product diversification strategy.Existing approaches for natural product library generation depend upon the functionalization of discreet naturalproducts, a process that is influenced by both the choice of lead structure and preconceptions about howderivatization will affect activity. We will devise a method for discovery that is not biased by existinghypotheses. Following chemoselective immobilization, derivatization of the natural products will be performedin an unbiased fashion; that is, we will perform functionalization reactions without prior knowledge of thenatural product structures. Derivatization of the natural products with targeting agents, such as a virulencemechanism inhibitor, will yield a diverse library of compounds containing a known bioactive portion and a novelnatural product moiety. This approach will facilitate the identification of dual-function compounds withenhanced anti-infective properties.

Public Health Relevance

This program will improve public health through the identification of the next generation of antimicrobialtherapeutic agents; particularly focusing on more effective and long-lifetime treatments for drug resistantinfections. To achieve this goal; we will develop and apply technologies for the discovery of drug leads fromnature's vast reservoir of antibacterial natural products from plants and microorganisms.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
Office of The Director, National Institutes of Health (OD)
NIH Director’s New Innovator Awards (DP2)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZGM1-NDIA-S (01))
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Basavappa, Ravi
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University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Schools of Arts and Sciences
United States
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Wilke, Kaelyn E; Fihn, Conrad A; Carlson, Erin E (2018) Screening serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase inhibitors for histidine kinase inhibition. Bioorg Med Chem 26:5322-5326
Goswami, Manibarsha; Wilke, Kaelyn E; Carlson, Erin E (2017) Rational Design of Selective Adenine-Based Scaffolds for Inactivation of Bacterial Histidine Kinases. J Med Chem 60:8170-8182
Sharifzadeh, Shabnam; Boersma, Michael J; Kocaoglu, Ozden et al. (2017) Novel Electrophilic Scaffold for Imaging of Essential Penicillin-Binding Proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae. ACS Chem Biol 12:2849-2857
Wilke, Kaelyn E; Carlson, Erin E (2016) Thiol-ene-Enabled Detection of Thiophosphorylation as a Labeling Strategy for Phosphoproteins. Methods Mol Biol 1355:3-15
Kocaoglu, Ozden; Carlson, Erin E (2016) Progress and prospects for small-molecule probes of bacterial imaging. Nat Chem Biol 12:472-8
Kocaoglu, Ozden; Tsui, Ho-Ching T; Winkler, Malcolm E et al. (2015) Profiling of ?-lactam selectivity for penicillin-binding proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae D39. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 59:3548-55
Kocaoglu, Ozden; Carlson, Erin E (2015) Profiling of ?-lactam selectivity for penicillin-binding proteins in Escherichia coli strain DC2. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 59:2785-90
Wilke, Kaelyn E; Francis, Samson; Carlson, Erin E (2015) Inactivation of multiple bacterial histidine kinases by targeting the ATP-binding domain. ACS Chem Biol 10:328-35
Tsui, Ho-Ching T; Boersma, Michael J; Vella, Stephen A et al. (2014) Pbp2x localizes separately from Pbp2b and other peptidoglycan synthesis proteins during later stages of cell division of Streptococcus pneumoniae?D39. Mol Microbiol 94:21-40
Francis, Samson; Wilke, Kaelyn E; Brown, Douglas E et al. (2013) Mechanistic insight into inhibition of two-component system signaling. Medchemcomm 4:269-277

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