This ethnographic research will investigate reactions of religious leaders and mental health professionals to the attacks of 9/11 and the ways in which novel organizations and professional hybrids have attempted to deal with perceived gaps in mental health services. By focusing on collaborations between clergy and mental health professionals this study will increase knowledge on two incterconnected areas: 1) Theoretical issues concerning the consequences of extreme events on the relationship between mental health theories and religion 2) Changing relationships between clergy and mental health professionals in New York City as caused by the attacks of 9/11 and their relevance to the role of clergy in disaster mental health preparedness. ? ? ? ?