The objective of this proposal is to determine if there are gender differences in the symptoms of unstable angina, which are not explained by age, diabetes, or mood. A descriptive, quantitative study design will be used to identify the symptoms experienced prior to admission to the hospital for an acute episode of unstable angina. Forty-five females and forty-five males will be interviewed. An open-ended question will be used to assess the patients' symptom experience in their own words. Instruments measuring type, location, and severity of symptoms, mood, and baseline characteristics will be used to identify and explicate the symptom experience. The description of symptoms is the mechanism by which patients gain entry to the health care system. In the acute setting, the descriptors used may affect triage in the emergency department, the use of cardiac interventions, and the course of treatment. The symptoms of a heart attack and/or unstable angina listed by the American Heart Association (AHA) and accepted by practitioners have previously been based on a male model and may not be applicable to women. Recent studies, which have included women, suggest that there may be gender differences in the symptoms experienced with both acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and unstable angina. The majority of these studies have included only patients diagnosed with AMI. Because CHD in women is primarily manifested by angina and not AMI, many women have been excluded from analysis. This study will examine patients diagnosed with unstable angina in order to gather data that has been heretofore lacking in women.
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|DeVon, Holli A; Zerwic, Julie Johnson (2004) Differences in the symptoms associated with unstable angina and myocardial infarction. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs 19:6-11|
|DeVon, Holli A; Zerwic, Julie Johnson (2003) The symptoms of unstable angina: do women and men differ? Nurs Res 52:108-18|