This project tests the functions of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in suppressing the development of food allergy and in restoring tolerance in the setting of established allergy. Our preliminary data that IgG against peanut prevents sensitization to peanut, and we hypothesize that this may be due to silencing the activation of mast cells, immune cells which we have previously shown to amplify the development of the allergic response. We will investigate whether IgG requires the inhibitory receptor, FcR2b, in order to suppress the allergic response. We will also investigate the effects of IgG on dendritic cells, which are the initiators of immune responses and carry both inhibitory FcR2b and activating FcR3 receptors for IgG. The contributions of the positive and negative signals from these receptors will be corroborated by examining the importance of key signaling molecules (Syk, Shp1) downstream of the receptors inside the cells. These objectives will be tested using a new robust mouse model of peanut allergy in which the mice exhibit sensitization and anaphylaxis similar to that seen in human patients. The functions of specific immune cells and molecules will be tested using genetically engineered mice and pharmaceutical approaches.
The specific aims are as follows:
AIM 1 : To determine whether FcR2b cancels the adjuvant effect of mast cells. The hypothesis being tested is that IgG, binding to FcR2b on mast cells, produces inhibitory signals to restore the Treg:Th2 balance.
AIM 2 : To elucidate the mechanisms of IgG-enhanced tolerance induction to ingested allergens. The hypothesis being tested is that IgG ligates FcR2b on intestinal dendritic cells, acting via Shp-1 to promote oral tolerance, while limiting pro-allergenic cytokines induced by FcR3 and Syk.
AIM 3 : To test the cellular and molecular mechanisms of peanut-specific IgG as an adjunct to conventional OIT. The hypothesis being tested is that IgG, acting via FcR2b, will enhance Treg responses while suppressing Th2 responses. This project is expected to generate critical new information regarding the basic mechanisms of immune sensitization to food allergens occurring in the gastrointestinal tract. These data will lay the groundwork for the development of new, mechanism-based therapies for food allergy, a disorder that is rapidly increasing in developed nations and has no approved treatments. Importantly, this proposal will expand our knowledge of the actions of IgG in food allergy, and may provide a rational basis for its use as a therapy.
|Stranks, Amanda J; Minnicozzi, Samantha C; Miller, Samuel J et al. (2018) Immunoglobulin E blockade during food allergen ingestion enhances the induction of inhibitory immunoglobulin G antibodies. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol :|
|Burton, Oliver T; Tamayo, Jaciel M; Stranks, Amanda J et al. (2018) Allergen-specific IgG antibody signaling through Fc?RIIb promotes food tolerance. J Allergy Clin Immunol 141:189-201.e3|
|Burton, O T; Medina Tamayo, J; Stranks, A J et al. (2018) IgE promotes type 2 innate lymphoid cells in murine food allergy. Clin Exp Allergy 48:288-296|
|Burton, Oliver T; Stranks, Amanda J; Tamayo, Jaciel M et al. (2017) A humanized mouse model of anaphylactic peanut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 139:314-322.e9|
|Noval Rivas, Magali; Burton, Oliver T; Oettgen, Hans C et al. (2016) IL-4 production by group 2 innate lymphoid cells promotes food allergy by blocking regulatory T-cell function. J Allergy Clin Immunol 138:801-811.e9|
|Oettgen, Hans C; Burton, Oliver T (2015) IgE and Mast Cells: The Endogenous Adjuvant. Adv Immunol 127:203-56|
|Oettgen, Hans C; Burton, Oliver T (2015) IgE receptor signaling in food allergy pathogenesis. Curr Opin Immunol 36:109-14|