Due to its unique transmission, the Y chromosome provides an unusual opportunity to examine evolutionary forces. The theoretical and experimental approaches outlined in this proposal represent an attempt to explore the population genetics of variation in the Drosophila Y chromosome, with the intention of gaining insight into sex chromosome evolution through understanding the significance of extant variation in the Y chromosome. The theoretical study is divided into three sections. The first is the development and analysis of """"""""classical"""""""" selection models, where discrete variation in Y chromosomes is assumed, and systems of recurrence equations will be derived that predict changes in allele frequencies under a variety of conditions, including meiotic drive, viability effects, fertility selection, sexual selection, mutation and migration. The second theoretical problem is the development of the statistical analysis of population samples in the spirit of Christiansen and Frydenburg's """"""""selection component analysis"""""""". Finally, an analysis of the infinite alleles model for the Y chromosome will be done, and Ewens-Watterson sampling theory will be used to test this neutral model with population samples. Three experimental projects will coincide with the theory that is developed. The first will be a survey of natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster using Southern analysis with Y-homologous probes. Data from this study will be analyzed to ascertain goodness-of-fit to neutral models, and to explore population structuring of this male-limited genetic element. Drosophila will be collected from a local population in order to perform a selection component analysis. This will provide a powerful statistical test of the significance of Y chromosome variation in a natural population. Finally a series of Y chromosome replacement lines will be constructed, and a segregation analysis will be performed to screen for meiotic and viability effects of the Y chromosomes. The integrated approach with a close interplay between theoretical and experimental methods should prove particularly fruitful in this study.

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Pennsylvania State University
Schools of Arts and Sciences
University Park
United States
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Gosselin, L E (2000) Attenuation of force deficit after lengthening contractions in soleus muscle from trained rats. J Appl Physiol 88:1254-8
Clark, A G (1994) Invasion and maintenance of a gene duplication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:2950-4
Clark, A G; Whittam, T S (1992) Sequencing errors and molecular evolutionary analysis. Mol Biol Evol 9:744-52
Lyckegaard, E M; Clark, A G (1991) Evolution of ribosomal RNA gene copy number on the sex chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Biol Evol 8:458-74
Clark, A G; Szumski, F M; Lyckegaard, E M (1991) Population genetics of the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster: rDNA variation and phenotypic correlates. Genet Res 58:7-13
Krane, D E; Clark, A G; Cheng, J F et al. (1991) Subfamily relationships and clustering of rabbit C repeats. Mol Biol Evol 8:1-30
Clark, A G (1990) Two tests of Y chromosomal variation in male fertility of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 125:527-34
Clark, A G (1989) Causes and consequences of variation in energy storage in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 123:131-44
Lyckegaard, E M; Clark, A G (1989) Ribosomal DNA and Stellate gene copy number variation on the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:1944-8
Clark, A G; Keith, L E (1989) Rapid enzyme kinetic assays of individual Drosophila and comparisons of field-caught D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Biochem Genet 27:263-77

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