Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the world's leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and evidence is mounting that sleep disturbance-which is chronically experienced by approximately one-third of the adult population-may be a prominent risk factor. The majority of research thus far has focused on the cardiovascular consequences of sleep disordered breathing, though there is compelling epidemiologic evidence that insomnia, particularly insomnia with short sleep duration, may be associated with increased CVD risk. Identification of increased CVD risk for this sleep phenotype would have significant

Public Health Relevance

, as it may be possible for appropriate behavioral interventions (once developed) to modify this risk via improving sleep. However, standard behavioral treatment for insomnia, cognitive behavioral therapy, is limited for this sleep phenotype due to restrictions upon the implementation of sleep restriction therapy. There is excellent rationale that exercise may be an ideal adjunct treatment for this sleep phenotype. The first aim of the research plan is to investigate whether insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with subclinical CVD, as assessed by insulin resistance and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, compared to good sleeper control participants. The second aim of the research plan is to examine the relationship between subclinical CVD and nocturnal physiological arousal, as assessed by cortical, autonomic and neuroendocrine indices of physiological arousal. The third aim of the research plan is to develop, refine and assess the safety and feasibility of a novel behavioral intervention, cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia combined with exercise, in a subset of adults with insomnia and short sleep duration. To achieve the goals of the research plan and my long-term goal of becoming an independent researcher studying how behavioral interventions reduce CVD risk through improved sleep, this Career Development Award will provide further training in the following areas: (1) the measurement of subclinical CVD and physiological correlates of CVD risk;(2) the behavioral treatment of insomnia;and (3) the design and conduct of randomized controlled trials. As insomnia is the most common sleep disorder, this proposal carries significant public health relevance as it could serve to characterize an objectively define insomnia phenotype-insomnia with objective short sleep duration-with increased CVD risk and demonstrate development of a feasible and appropriate behavioral treatment for this phenotype. Findings from the proposed studies will provide novel and clinically relevant information and provide a foundation for a long-term career studying how behavioral interventions reduce CVD risk through improved sleep. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder, and there is accumulating evidence of its association with increased CVD risk. This project will examine the association between a specific insomnia phenotype, insomnia with objective short sleep duration, and CVD risk using a well-characterized diagnosed insomnia sample, objective markers of CVD risk, and measurement of nocturnal physiological arousal, and we will develop, refine and assess the feasibility and safety of a novel behavioral intervention for this phenotype. The proposed research has significant public health relevance due to the high prevalence of insomnia and the possibility that its increased CVD risk may be modifiable.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Mentored Patient-Oriented Research Career Development Award (K23)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZHL1-CSR-X (O1))
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Stoney, Catherine
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University of Pittsburgh
Schools of Medicine
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Baker, Joshua H; Rothenberger, Scott D; Kline, Christopher E et al. (2018) Exercise during early pregnancy is associated with greater sleep continuity. Behav Sleep Med 16:482-493
Kline, Christopher E; Hall, Martica H; Buysse, Daniel J et al. (2018) Poor Sleep Quality is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Postmenopausal Women With and Without Metabolic Syndrome. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 16:183-189
Herring, Matthew P; Monroe, Derek C; Kline, Christopher E et al. (2018) Sleep quality moderates the association between physical activity frequency and feelings of energy and fatigue in adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 27:1425-1432
Kowalsky, Robert J; Perdomo, Sophy J; Taormina, John M et al. (2018) Effect of Using a Sit-Stand Desk on Ratings of Discomfort, Fatigue, and Sleepiness Across a Simulated Workday in Overweight and Obese Adults. J Phys Act Health 15:788-794
Barone Gibbs, Bethany; Kline, Christopher E (2018) When does sedentary behavior become sleep? A proposed framework for classifying activity during sleep-wake transitions. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 15:81
Brindle, Ryan C; Duggan, Katherine A; Cribbet, Matthew R et al. (2018) Cardiovascular Stress Reactivity and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: The Buffering Role of Slow-Wave Sleep. Psychosom Med 80:301-306
Kline, Christopher E; Burke, Lora E; Sereika, Susan M et al. (2018) Bidirectional Relationships Between Weight Change and Sleep Apnea in a Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention. Mayo Clin Proc 93:1290-1298
Hall, Martica H; Mulukutla, Suresh; Kline, Christopher E et al. (2017) Objective Sleep Duration Is Prospectively Associated With Endothelial Health. Sleep 40:
Kline, Christopher E; Krafty, Robert T; Mulukutla, Suresh et al. (2017) Associations of sedentary time and moderate-vigorous physical activity with sleep-disordered breathing and polysomnographic sleep in community-dwelling adults. Sleep Breath 21:427-434
Breneman, Charity B; Kline, Christopher E; West, Delia S et al. (2017) The effect of moderate-intensity exercise on nightly variability in objectively measured sleep parameters among older women. Behav Sleep Med :1-11

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