This represents a competitive renewal of a NIDA contract N)1DA-5-8060, entitled """"""""Rodent and Monkey Testing for NIDA Opiate Treatment Discovery Program."""""""" It provides support for in vivo testing, both in rodents and primates, of potential pharmacotherapies for drug dependence disorders. The primary emphasis is on testing conducted for NIDA's Opioid Treatment Discovery Program. However, flexability exists with in the contract to support the testing of potential pharmacotherapies for non-opioid (e.g., cocaine or methamphetamine) dependence disorders. The NIDA Opioid Treatment Discovery Program currently is focused on three clinical needs: (1) medications effective in preventing relapse following the cessation of opioid use (e.g., following medically facilitated withdrawal); (2) adjunct medications for converting patients from opioid agonist therapy to opioid antagonist or non-opioid therapy; and (3) improved non-opioid medications for treating opioid withdrawal symptoms. Following contract award, the program will be served by two NIDA contracts. One contract (N01DA-7-8072; SRI International) supports in vitro evaluations of the activity of novel compounds at mu-, kappa-, and delta-opioid receptors, as well as at numerous non-opioid receptors. The present contract (N01DA-8-8088) will support follow-up in vivo opioid receptor activity and selectivity testing in rodents, as well as all other non-human pharmacology studies required by the program.