Project 3 will study anesthetic effects on protein global dynamics and test the central hypothesis that only those binding sites at which anesthetic binding can cause global dynamics changes are essential for mediating anesthetic action on proteins. Solution-state NMR in lyso-lipid micelles and high-resolution magicangle spinning (MAS) NMR in low-q lipid bicelles will be used to study a member ofthe Cys-loop ligandgated ion channel (LGIC) family (specific aim #1) and a member ofthe voltage-gated ion channel (VGIC) family (specific aim 2). We will focus on the transmembrane (TM) domain of nAChR a7 subunit in the functional homopentameric form with and without the intracellular (IC) domain, and the bacterial voltagegated sodium channel NaChBac. An anesthetic binding site will be engineered near the TM2-TM3 linker in nAChR a7 TM domain to turn this inhaled anesthetic-insensitive channel into an anesthetic sensitive channel. High-resolution TM domain structure of nAChR-a7 and the voltage-sensing domain (VSD), the pore domain (PD), and the 84-85 linker of NaChBac will be determined. Strategic ^^F probe placements, one or a few at a time, will be implemented to selectively label Phe, Lys, or site-directed Cys mutations to generate structural constraints. A model-based structure refinement approach will be taken through iterative interaction with Project 4 and Project 5 to refine the full-length receptor structures in the functional forms. The same ^?F labels will also be used to determine slow domain dynamics through ^^F T2 dispersion measurements in the solution state. To complement the photoaffinity binding analyses in Project 1, intermolecular ^^F-^?F NOESY and ^^F-^H HOESY between fluorinated anesthetics (halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and fluorinated propofol) and the ^^F labels at various sites in the proteins will be used to determine anesthetic binding sites and affinities. We will classify and characterize at least two types of anesthetic binding sites: Type I where anesthetic binding can cause global dynamics changes and Type II where anesthetic binding produces only local effects. Through interaction with Project 2, we will seek correlations between anesthetic binding at Type I versus Type II sites and the effects of anesthetic binding on channel function. This project will provide new mechanistic insights into the """"""""down-stream events"""""""" of anesthetic binding in modulating changes in channel activation and function.

Public Health Relevance

This and other projects determine character of drug binding sites on relevant proteins, and thereby enable drug improvements. More importantly, this project links the binding site character with the functional role, allowing the assignment of importance to sites, so that we know which binding site character to design our drugs for.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)
Research Program Projects (P01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZGM1-PPBC-5)
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University of Pennsylvania
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Loll, Patrick J (2018) Structural Analysis of Anesthetics in Complex with Soluble Proteins. Methods Enzymol 603:3-20
Yang, Elaine; Granata, Daniele; Eckenhoff, Roderic G et al. (2018) Propofol inhibits prokaryotic voltage-gated Na+ channels by promoting activation-coupled inactivation. J Gen Physiol 150:1299-1316
Woll, Kellie A; Guzik-Lendrum, Stephanie; Bensel, Brandon M et al. (2018) An allosteric propofol-binding site in kinesin disrupts kinesin-mediated processive movement on microtubules. J Biol Chem 293:11283-11295
Woll, Kellie A; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Bhanu, Natarajan V et al. (2018) Identification of binding sites contributing to volatile anesthetic effects on GABA type A receptors. FASEB J 32:4172-4189
Kasimova, Marina A; Yazici, Aysenur Torun; Yudin, Yevgen et al. (2018) A hypothetical molecular mechanism for TRPV1 activation that invokes rotation of an S6 asparagine. J Gen Physiol 150:1554-1566
Wang, Yali; Yang, Elaine; Wells, Marta M et al. (2018) Propofol inhibits the voltage-gated sodium channel NaChBac at multiple sites. J Gen Physiol 150:1317-1331
Bensel, Brandon M; Guzik-Lendrum, Stephanie; Masucci, Erin M et al. (2017) Common general anesthetic propofol impairs kinesin processivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114:E4281-E4287
Okuno, Toshiaki; Koutsogiannaki, Sophia; Ohba, Mai et al. (2017) Intravenous anesthetic propofol binds to 5-lipoxygenase and attenuates leukotriene B4 production. FASEB J 31:1584-1594
Granata, Daniele; Ponzoni, Luca; Micheletti, Cristian et al. (2017) Patterns of coevolving amino acids unveil structural and dynamical domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114:E10612-E10621
Carnevale, Vincenzo; Klein, Michael L (2017) Small molecule modulation of voltage gated sodium channels. Curr Opin Struct Biol 43:156-162

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