? NEUROIMAGING CORE The overall mission of the Neuroimaging Core is the use of imaging science to better understand intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), their causes, treatments, and prevention. This mission is accomplished in two ways: (1) Innovation (Aim 1)?development of new techniques, paradigms, methodologies, hardware and software to conduct research not previously possible; and (2) Guidance (Aims 2-5)?proper use of new and existing techniques studies designed to expand our understanding of IDD. Core faculty and staff help to conceptualize, plan and implement stimulus paradigms, MRI pulse sequences, and data analysis schemes so that our advisees use state-of-the-art and novel imaging technology to best effect, with innovation capabilities and support from both NIH and Industry. These services include quality control procedures for assuring the best data for these studies. The Core faculty also guide users to seek synergies across different types of imaging data (anatomic, functional, spectroscopic, physiologic). We also provide expertise on MRI- compatible implementation of transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation techniques that can be used complementarily to functional MRI. Importantly, the Neuroimaging Core exists as a dedicated research center, and investigators do not compete with clinical services for scan utilization. To achieve these overall goals, the overall Core aims are to: (1) to support and promote innovation through the use of imaging science; (2) maintain a state-of-the-art scientific, technical and intellectual environment; (3) guide the optimal application of advanced neuroimage acquisition and processing techniques; (4) coordinate Core activities throughout the IDDRC; and (5) contribute to the training functions of the Center.