The aims of this research are to 1) reduce the incidence and prevalence of alcohol abuse among adolescents; 2) test the relative efficacy of social psychologically based prevention strategies which focus on social influence resistance skills training, normative education, information about consequences of use, or a combined approach; 3) test the efficacy of prevention programs which were delivered at fifth or seventh grades. A five-year continuation of a longitudinal study is proposed. During the initial eighteen months of funding (February, 1985 through August, 1986), all programs were pilot tested, and measures were developed and refined. A formal test of programs began in September, 1986. Four panels of subjects have received program. Two panels received program at fifth grade. Two additional panels received program at seventh grade. Results to date indicate that programs are having strong differential effects on mediating variables, such as skills to resist pressure and normative beliefs. Programs are having expected effects on behavioral outcomes. The proposed five-year continuation will involve the continued formal test of these three strategies as preventive treatments. Three panels of subjects will be followed through twelfth grade. The other panel will be followed through eleventh grade. Hypotheses regarding program effectiveness will be tested via analysis of covariance, with pretest alcohol use as a covariate.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
Research Project (R01)
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Clinical and Treatment Subcommittee (ALCP)
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Wake Forest University Health Sciences
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Palmer, R F; Graham, J W; White, E L et al. (1998) Applying multilevel analytic strategies in adolescent substance use prevention research. Prev Med 27:328-36
MacKinnon, D P; Williams-Avery, R M; Pentz, M A (1995) Youth beliefs and knowledge about the risks of drinking while pregnant. Public Health Rep 110:754-63
Donaldson, S I; Graham, J W; Piccinin, A M et al. (1995) Resistance-skills training and onset of alcohol use: evidence for beneficial and potentially harmful effects in public schools and in private Catholic schools. Health Psychol 14:291-300
Donaldson, S I; Graham, J W; Hansen, W B (1994) Testing the generalizability of intervening mechanism theories: understanding the effects of adolescent drug use prevention interventions. J Behav Med 17:195-216
Aloise-Young, P A; Graham, J W; Hansen, W B (1994) Peer influence on smoking initiation during early adolescence: a comparison of group members and group outsiders. J Appl Psychol 79:281-7
Rohrbach, L A; Graham, J W; Hansen, W B (1993) Diffusion of a school-based substance abuse prevention program: predictors of program implementation. Prev Med 22:237-60
Graham, J W; Donaldson, S I (1993) Evaluating interventions with differential attrition: the importance of nonresponse mechanisms and use of follow-up data. J Appl Psychol 78:119-28
Graham, J W; Marks, G; Hansen, W B (1991) Social influence processes affecting adolescent substance use. J Appl Psychol 76:291-8
Graham, J W; Collins, L M; Wugalter, S E et al. (1991) Modeling transitions in latent stage-sequential processes: a substance use prevention example. J Consult Clin Psychol 59:48-57
Hansen, W B; Graham, J W; Wolkenstein, B H et al. (1991) Program integrity as a moderator of prevention program effectiveness: results for fifth-grade students in the adolescent alcohol prevention trial. J Stud Alcohol 52:568-79

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