The use of alcohol and other drugs by employed adults represents an important social policy issue because it can undermine employee health and productivity. Such effects may further interfere with employers' ability to compete effectively in an increasingly competitive domestic and global economic environment. Although national data exist regarding the overall level of alcohol and drug use among employed adults in the U.S. (WORKFORCE substance use), much less is known about the prevalence of (1) alcohol and drug use on-the-job (WORKPLACE substance use) and (2) the physical and social availability of alcohol and drugs at work. The proposed study will address several key issues. First, the prevalence and distribution of workplace substance use and availability in the employed population will be explored. Second, a model of the relation of overall and workplace substance availability to overall and workplace substance use will be tested. Third, the role of overall and workplace substance availability in explaining demographic differences in workplace substance use will be explored. Fourth, a """"""""correspondence model"""""""" of employee substance use and productivity will be tested. The model explicitly distinguishes between measures of overall and on-the-job substance use and between attendance and performance (e.g., task performance, job injury) outcomes. Fifth, we will test the relation of exposure to coworker on-the-job substance use (a dimension of social availability) to the performance and morale of individuals who do not use alcohol or drugs at work. Finally, the study will develop an instrument that provides a comprehensive assessment of workplace substance use and availability. To address these issues, we propose a national telephone survey of workplace substance use among a representative sample of employed (part- and full-time) individuals 18 to 65 years old. Data will be collected on demographic characteristics, occupational characteristics, overall substance use, workplace substance use, physical and social availability of alcohol and drugs at work, and employee productivity and morale. The proposed research will make a valuable contribution to social policy discussions regarding the scope and distribution of substance use/availability in the workplace, and to the development of workplace interventions. The proposed study will help to shape future research on workplace substance use by identifying subgroups in need of more detailed examination and by providing a set of measures to standardize the assessment of workplace substance use and availability. It will also stimulate future research by developing and testing a systematic model of employee substance use and productivity.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
Research Project (R01)
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Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-SNEM-2 (01))
Program Officer
Yahr, Harold
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State University of New York at Buffalo
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United States
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Frone, Michael R (2016) The Great Recession and employee alcohol use: a U.S. population study. Psychol Addict Behav 30:158-67
Frone, Michael R; Trinidad, Jonathan R (2014) Perceived physical availability of alcohol at work and workplace alcohol use and impairment: testing a structural model. Psychol Addict Behav 28:1271-7
Frone, Michael R (2012) Workplace Substance Use Climate: Prevalence and Distribution in the U.S. Workforce. J Subst Use 71:72-83
Frone, Michael R; Trinidad, Jonathan R (2012) Relation of supervisor social control to employee substance use: considering the dimensionality of social control, temporal context of substance use, and substance legality. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 73:303-10
Schat, Aaron; Frone, Michael R (2011) Exposure to Psychological Aggression at Work and Job Performance: The Mediating Role of Job Attitudes and Personal Health. Work Stress 25:23-40
Frone, Michael R; Brown, Amy L (2010) Workplace substance-use norms as predictors of employee substance use and impairment: a survey of U.S. workers. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 71:526-34
Frone, Michael R (2009) Does a permissive workplace substance use climate affect employees who do not use alcohol and drugs at work? A U.S. national study. Psychol Addict Behav 23:386-90
Frone, Michael R (2008) Are work stressors related to employee substance use? The importance of temporal context assessments of alcohol and illicit drug use. J Appl Psychol 93:199-206
Grandey, Alicia A; Kern, Julie H; Frone, Michael R (2007) Verbal abuse from outsiders versus insiders: comparing frequency, impact on emotional exhaustion, and the role of emotional labor. J Occup Health Psychol 12:63-79
Frone, Michael R (2006) Prevalence and distribution of illicit drug use in the workforce and in the workplace: findings and implications from a U.S. national survey. J Appl Psychol 91:856-69

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