GENACIS (Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study) is a multinational study of gender and alcohol use, based on general population surveys with comparable methods and measures in 36 countries. The study includes not only Europe, North America, and Australia but also countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This application is for secondary analyses of the unique GENACIS data set, in order to understand better how gender and culture interact to influence drinking behavior and its consequences worldwide. The proposed analyses will investigate combined gender and cultural differences in (1) drinking behavior and its adverse effects;(2) how drinking and its effects are modified by socioeconomic conditions, social status and social roles (including gender roles), and drinking contexts;and (3) how drinking is linked to social pressures to control drinking, intimate relationships, and intimate partner violence. A standard questionnaire used in most of the GENACIS surveys has enabled GENACIS to obtain detailed comparable data about drinking patterns, drinking-related problems, and a variety of possible antecedents and consequences. These individual-level variables are supplemented by societal-level measures (from archival sources and aggregated survey data), including measures of gender inequality and economic development. GENACIS data sets, edited and merged at a central data management site, will be analyzed by teams of co-investigators at their own institutions. Analyses will test hypotheses about individual-level relationships within societies studied and across societies, societal-level drinking patterns, and societal-level influences on individual-level relationships. Analyses will involve regression analyses within societies, meta-analysis and tests for homogeneity across societies, and evaluation of societal influences on individual-level patterns and relationships by meta-regression and hierarchical linear models. Findings will be disseminated in professional journals, research monographs, and at an international research conference in the fourth project year. The proposed multinational analyses can make important contributions to understanding how gender and culture influence drinking and its consequences. Knowledge gained from these analyses can aid the development of more effective national and international alcohol abuse prevention, intervention, and policy efforts for both men and women.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
Research Project (R01)
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Study Section
Behavioral Genetics and Epidemiology Study Section (BGES)
Program Officer
Shirley, Mariela
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University of North Dakota
Schools of Medicine
Grand Forks
United States
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