Each year in the United States approximately 2.5 million individuals are so severely injured that they require inpatient hospital admission. The integration of screening and brief interventions (SBI) into acute injury care has the potential to markedly increase the number of patients who receive needed services and has been a longstanding public health objective. In January of 2005 the American College of Surgeons, the primary agency responsible for developing trauma center requirements, passed a landmark resolution mandating that level I trauma centers must screen injured patients for an alcohol use disorder, and provide an intervention to those who screen positive. Preliminary studies suggest that there is a substantial risk that the SBI mandate will be implemented with marked variability and that low quality SBI procedures could become the default standard of trauma center care. The goal of the Disseminating Organizational Screening and Brief Interventions Services (DO-SBIS) investigation is to capitalize on the unique opportunity afforded by the American College of Surgeons'mandate by taking early steps to insure high quality, evidence-based SBI services are implemented and outcomes are assessed. In the first phase of the investigation, SBI services will be assessed for all 190 level I trauma centers in the United States. In the second phase of the investigation, 20 level I trauma centers will be selected for randomization to intervention or control conditions. Providers at each intervention trauma center will receive workshop training and ongoing telephone coaching in the delivery of evidence-based motivational interviewing (Ml) intervention;Ml training will be embedded within evidence-based organizational development activities that aim to facilitate the integration of SBI services into routine trauma center care. Control trauma centers will implement SBI care as usual. The investigation hypothesizes that intervention trauma centers, when compared to control trauma centers, will demonstrate higher quality SBI, as evidenced by greater provider proficiency in SBI delivery, significant reductions in 6- and 12-month post-injury alcohol use in patients receiving SBI, and enhanced organizational acceptance of SBI services. Without DO-SBIS baseline data on SBI services and follow-up RCT data on patient, provider, and organizational outcomes, a critical opportunity to provide empiric support of a historic policy decision to require alcohol services at level I trauma centers could be lost. The DO-SBIS interdisciplinary research group includes trauma surgery opinion leaders who are dedicated to implementing future policy mandates that derive from the DO-SBIS research program. Future mandates will aim to strengthen and refine trauma center delivery of evidence-based SBI services. The dissemination of high quality SBI services at level I trauma centers has the potential to influence alcohol policy in other health care settings nationwide.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
Research Project (R01)
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Study Section
Health Services Research Review Subcommittee (AA)
Program Officer
Lowman, Cherry
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University of Washington
Schools of Medicine
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Darnell, Doyanne; Dunn, Christopher; Atkins, David et al. (2016) A Randomized Evaluation of Motivational Interviewing Training for Mandated Implementation of Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Trauma Centers. J Subst Abuse Treat 60:36-44
Peterson, Roselyn; Russo, Joan; Darnell, Doyanne et al. (2015) Traumatic Life Events Prior to Alcohol-Related Admission of Injured Acute Care Inpatients: A Brief Report. Psychiatry 78:367-71
Love, Jeff; Zatzick, Douglas (2014) Screening and Intervention for Comorbid Substance Disorders, PTSD, Depression, and Suicide: A Trauma Center Survey. Psychiatr Serv 65:918-23
Van Eaton, Erik G; Zatzick, Douglas F; Gallagher, Thomas H et al. (2014) A nationwide survey of trauma center information technology leverage capacity for mental health comorbidity screening. J Am Coll Surg 219:505-10.e1
Zatzick, Douglas; Donovan, Dennis M; Jurkovich, Gregory et al. (2014) Disseminating alcohol screening and brief intervention at trauma centers: a policy-relevant cluster randomized effectiveness trial. Addiction 109:754-65
Davydow, Dimitry S; Kohen, Ruth; Hough, Catherine L et al. (2014) A pilot investigation of the association of genetic polymorphisms regulating corticotrophin-releasing hormone with posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms in medical-surgical intensive care unit survivors. J Crit Care 29:101-6
Russo, Joan; Katon, Wayne; Zatzick, Douglas (2013) The development of a population-based automated screening procedure for PTSD in acutely injured hospitalized trauma survivors. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 35:485-91
Zatzick, Christopher D; Zatzick, Douglas F (2013) The effect of perceived person-job fit on employee attitudes toward change in trauma centers. Health Care Manage Rev 38:115-24
Davydow, Dimitry S; Zatzick, Douglas; Hough, Catherine L et al. (2013) A longitudinal investigation of posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms over the course of the year following medical-surgical intensive care unit admission. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 35:226-32
Davydow, Dimitry S; Zatzick, Douglas; Hough, Catherine L et al. (2013) A longitudinal investigation of alcohol use over the course of the year following medical-surgical intensive care unit admission. Psychosomatics 54:307-16

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